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<p>The effectiveness of extended-precision checksums is thoroughly analyzed. It is demonstrated that the extended-precision checksums most effectively exploit natural redundancy occurring in program codes. Honeywell checksums and cyclic redundancy checks are compared to extended-precision checksums. Two's complement, unsigned, and one's complement arithmetic checksums are treated in a unified manner. Results are also extended to any general radix-p arithmetic checksum. Asymptotic and closed-form formulas of aliasing probabilities for the various error models are derived.</p>
checksums; extended-precision checksums; cyclic redundancy checks; program codes; radix-p arithmetic checksum; closed-form formulas; error correction codes; error detection codes.

N. Saxena and E. McCluskey, "Analysis of Checksums, Extended-Precision Checksums, and Cyclic Redundancy Checks," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 39, no. , pp. 969-975, 1990.
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