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A methodology for quickly estimating machine performance is developed. A first-order estimate is based on the average degree of machine parallelism. A second-order model corrects for the effects of nonuniformities in instruction-level and machine parallelism and is shown to be accurate to within 15% for three widely different machine pipelines: the CRAY-1, the MultiTitan, and a dual-issue super
machine performance; first-order estimate; machine parallelism; instruction-level; machine pipelines; CRAY-1; MultiTitan; superscalar machine; parallel architectures; performance evaluation; pipeline processing.

N. Jouppi, "The Nonuniform Distribution of Instruction-Level and Machine Parallelism and its Effect on Performance," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 38, no. , pp. 1645-1658, 1989.
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