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A network of passive electrical resistors is connected in a closed loop with a digital computer. This network functions as a parallel-operating subroutine to greatly accelerate the digital computer solution of certain classes of numerical problems. Computer systems employing the analog subroutine concept are "digital-computer-oriented" hybrid computers. Problems are programmed for conventional digital computation, and the digital computer flow chart is analyzed to determine if some particularly time-consuming blocks could be better handled by analog rather than digital techniques. A simple special-purpose analog unit is then constructed for this computational task.
Algebraic equations, analog subroutine, hybrid computation, parallel computing, partial differential equations.

W. Karplus and R. Russell, "Increasing Digital Computer Efficiency with the Aid of Error-Correcting Analog Subroutines," in IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 20, no. , pp. 831-837, 1971.
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