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Issue No. 02 - April-June (2014 vol. 7)
ISSN: 1939-1374
pp: 293-306
Deepal Jayasinghe , College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,
Simon Malkowski , College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,
Jack Li , College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ,
Qingyang Wang , College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,
Zhikui Wang , HP Labs, Palo Alto,
Calton Pu , College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ,
ABSTRACT
The increasing popularity of clouds drives researchers to find answers to a large variety of new and challenging questions. Through extensive experimental measurements, we show variance in performance and scalability of clouds for two non-trivial scenarios. In the first scenario, we target the public Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) clouds, and study the case when a multi-tier application is migrated from a traditional datacenter to one of the three IaaS clouds. To validate our findings in the first scenario, we conduct similar study with three private clouds built using three mainstream hypervisors. We used the RUBBoS benchmark application and compared its performance and scalability when hosted in Amazon EC2, Open Cirrus, and Emulab. Our results show that a best-performing configuration in one cloud can become the worst-performing configuration in another cloud. Subsequently, we identified several system level bottlenecks such as high context switching and network driver processing overheads that degraded the performance. We experimentally evaluate concrete alternative approaches as practical solutions to address these problems. We then built the three private clouds using a commercial hypervisor (CVM), Xen, and KVM respectively and evaluated performance characteristics using both RUBBoS and Cloudstone benchmark applications. The three clouds show significant performance variations; for instance, Xen outperforms CVM by 75 percent on the read-write RUBBoS workload and CVM outperforms Xen by over 10 percent on the Cloudstone workload. These observed problems were confirmed at a finer granularity through micro-benchmark experiments that measure component performance directly.
INDEX TERMS
Cloud computing, Clouds, Hardware, Benchmark testing, Scalability, Virtual machine monitors
CITATION

D. Jayasinghe, S. Malkowski, J. Li, Q. Wang, Z. Wang and C. Pu, "Variations in Performance and Scalability: An Experimental Study in IaaS Clouds Using Multi-Tier Workloads," in IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 293-306, 2014.
doi:10.1109/TSC.2013.46
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