The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.03 - Third Quarter (2012 vol.5)
pp: 319-332
Ourania Hatzi , Harokopio University of Athens, Athens
Dimitris Vrakas , Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki
Mara Nikolaidou , Harokopio University of Athens, Athens
Nick Bassiliades , Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki
Dimosthenis Anagnostopoulos , Harokopio University of Athens, Athens
Ioannis Vlahavas , Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki
The paper presents an integrated approach for automated semantic web service composition using AI planning techniques. An important advantage of this approach is that the composition process, as well as the discovery of the atomic services that take part in the composition, are significantly facilitated by the incorporation of semantic information. OWL-S web service descriptions are transformed into a planning problem described in a standardized fashion using PDDL, while semantic information is used for the enhancement of the composition process as well as for approximating the optimal composite service when exact solutions are not found. Solving, visualization, manipulation, and evaluation of the produced composite services are accomplished, while, unlike other systems, independence from specific planners is maintained. Implementation was performed through the development and integration of two software systems, namely PORSCE II and VLEPPO. PORSCE II is responsible for the transformation process, semantic enhancement, and management of the results. VLEPPO is a general-purpose planning system used to automatically acquire solutions for the problem by invoking external planners. A case study is also presented to demonstrate the functionality, performance, and potential of the approach.
Web services, Planning, Semantics, Ontologies, Standards, Semantic Web, composite web services., Intelligent web services and Semantic Web, services composition
Ourania Hatzi, Dimitris Vrakas, Mara Nikolaidou, Nick Bassiliades, Dimosthenis Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis Vlahavas, "An Integrated Approach to Automated Semantic Web Service Composition through Planning", IEEE Transactions on Services Computing, vol.5, no. 3, pp. 319-332, Third Quarter 2012, doi:10.1109/TSC.2011.20
[1] O. Hatzi, G. Meditskos, D. Vrakas, N. Bassiliades, D. Anagnostopoulos, and I. Vlahavas, "Semantic Web Service Composition Using Planning and Ontology Concept Relevance with PORSCE II," Proc. IEEE/WIC/ACM Int'l Joint Conf. Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technologies, 2009.
[2] O. Hatzi, D. Vrakas, N. Bassiliades, D. Anagnostopoulos, and I. Vlahavas, "VLEPPO: A Visual Language for Problem Representation," Proc. UK Planning and Scheduling Special Interest Group (PlanSIG '07), pp. 60-66, 2007.
[3] B. Srivastava and J. Koehler, "Web Service Composition-Current Solutions and Open Problems," Proc. Workshop Planning for Web Services, 2003.
[4] N. Milanovic and M. Malek, "Current Solutions for Web Service Composition," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 51-59, Nov. 2004.
[5] A. Bucchiarone and S. Gnesi, "A Survey on Service Composition Languages and Models," Proc. Int'l Workshop Web Services Modelling and Testing (WsMaTe), 2006.
[6] J. Rao and X. Su, "A Survey of Automated Web Service Composition Methods," Semantic Web Services and Web Process Composition, vol. 3387, pp. 43-54, 2004.
[7] S. Dustdar and W. Schreiner, "A Survey on Web Services Composition," Int'l J. Web and Grid Services, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-30, 2005.
[8] S. Thatte, ed., BPEL4WS (Version 1.1), specificationws-bpel, 2003.
[9] F. Casati et al., "Adaptive and Dynamic Service Composition in eFlow," Proc. 12th Int'l Conf. Advanced Information Systems Eng. (CAiSE '00), 2000.
[10] E. Sirin, B. Parsia, D. Wu, J. Hendler, and D. Nau, "HTN Planning for Web Service Composition Using Shop2," J. Web Semantics, vol. 1, no. 4 pp. 377-396, 2004.
[11] M. Pistore, A. Marconi, P. Bertoli, and P. Traverso, "Automated Composition of Web Services by Planning at the Knowledge Level," Proc. 19th Int'l Joint Conf. Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI '05), 2005.
[12] S. McIlraith and T. Son, "Adapting Golog for Composition of Semantic Web Services," Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, pp. 482-493, 2002.
[13] S.R. Ponnekanti and A. Fox, "SWORD: A Developer Toolkit for Web Service Composition," Proc. 11th Int'l WWW Conf. (WWW), pp. 83-107, 2002.
[14] M. Klusch, A. Gerber, and M. Schmidt, "Semantic Web Service Composition Planning with OWLS-XPlan," Proc. AAAI Fall Symp. Semantic Web and Agents, 2005.
[15] M. Fox and D. Long, "PDDL+: Modeling Continuous Time Dependent Effects," Proc. Third Int'l NASA Workshop Planning and Scheduling for Space, 2002.
[16] E. Sirin, B. Parsia, B. Grau, A. Kalyanpur, and Y. Katz, "Pellet: A Practical OWL DL Reasoner," Proc. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web in Software Eng. and the Semantic Web, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 51-53, 2007.
[17] A. Maedche and V. Zacharias, "Clustering Ontology-Based Metadata in the Semantic Web," Proc. Sixth European Conf. Principles of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (PKDD '02), 2002.
[18] R. Fikes and N.J. Nilsson, "STRIPS: A New Approach to the Application of Theorem Proving to Problem Solving," Proc. Second Int'l Joint Conf. Artificial Intelligence, vol. 2, pp. 189-208, 1971.
[19] M. Ghallab, A. Howe, C. Knoblock, D. McDermott, A. Ram, M. Veloso, D. Weld, and D. Wilkins, "PDDL-The Planning Domain Definition Language," technical report, Yale Univ., 1998.
[20] A. Gerevini, A. Saetti, and I. Serina, "LPG-td: A Fully Automated Planner for PDDL2.2 Domains," Proc. 14th Int'l Conf. Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS), 2004.
[21] OWLS-TC, owls-tc, 2010.
[22] JPlan,, 2012.
[23] M. Paolucci, A. Ankolekar, N. Srinivasan, and K. Sycara, "The DAML-S Virtual Machine," Proc. Int'l Semantic Web Conf., pp. 290-305, 2003.
[24] O. Hatzi, D. Vrakas, N. Bassiliades, D. Anagnostopoulos, and I. Vlahavas, "A Visual Programming System for Automated Problem Solving," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 4611-4625, 2010.
[25] SWRL,, 2012.
[26] RuleML, http:/, 2012.
[27] W.M.P van der Aalst, "Don't Go with the Flow: Web Services Composition Standards Exposed," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 72-76, Jan./Feb. 2003.
[28] D. Berardi, D. Calvanese De, G. Giacomo, and M. Mecella, "Automatic Composition of Process-Based Web Services: A Challenge," Proc. Workshop Web Service Semantics: Towards Dynamic Business Integration (WSS '05), 2005.
[29] B. Medjahed and A. Bouguettaya, and A.K. Elmagarmid, "Composing Web Services on the Semantic Web," Very Large Data Bases J., vol. 12, pp. 333-351, 2003.
[30] M. Carman, L. Serafini, and P. Traverso, "Web Service Composition as Planning," Proc. Workshop Planning for Web Services, 2003.
[31] OWL-S 1.1,, 2012.
[32] J. Fernandez Olivares, T. Garzón, L. Castillo Vidal, Ó. García Pérez, and F. Palao, "A Middleware for the Automated Composition and Invocation of Semantic Web Services Based on HTN Planning Techniques, CAEPIA07," Springer LNAI 4788, 2007.
[33] J.R. Hobbs, "DAML-Time, 'A DAML Ontology of Time,'" daml-time-20020830.txt, 2002.
[34] F. Pan and J.R. Hobbs, "Time in OWL-S," Proc. AAAI Symp. Semantic Web Services, 2004.
[35] F. Lecue and A. Leger, "A Formal Model for Semantic Web Service Composition," Proc. Leading the Web in Concurrent Eng.: Next Generation Concurrent Eng., pp. 385-398, 2006.
[36] D. McDermott, "Estimated-Regression Planning for Interactions with Web Services," Proc. Sixth Int'l AI Planning and Scheduling, 2002.
[37] M. Paolucci, T. Kawmura, T. Payne, and K. Sycara, "Semantic Matching of Web Services Capabilities," Proc. First Int'l Semantic Web Conf., 2002.
[38] W.M.P. van der Aalst, M. Dumas, and A.H.M. Ter Hofstede, "Web Service Composition Languages: Old Wine in New Bottles," Proc. 29th EUROMICRO Conf., 2003.
[39] G. Alonso, F. Casati, H. Kuno, and V. Machiraju, Web Services, Concepts, Architectures and Applications. Springer, 2004.
[40] M. Chan, J. Bishop, and L. Baresi, "Survey and Comparison of Planning Techniques for Web Services Composition," technical report, Univ. of Pretoria, 2007.
[41] R. Zhan, B. Arpinar, and B. Aleman-Meza, "Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services," Proc. Int'l Conf. Web Services (ICWS '03), 2003.
[42] F. Lecue and A. Delteil, "Making the Difference in Semantic Web Service Composition," Proc. 22nd Nat'l Conf. Am. Assoc. for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI '07), 2007.
[43] B. Srivastava, "Automatic Web Services Composition Using Planning," Proc. Knowledge-Based Computer Systems (KBCS '02), pp. 467-447, 2002.
[44] S.A. Chun, Y. Lee, J. Geller, "Ontological and Pragmatic Knowledge Management for Web Service Composition," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Database Systems for Advanced Applications, 2004.
[45] M. Schoop, A. de Moor, and J. Dietz, "The Pragmatic Web: A Manifesto," Comm. ACM, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 75-76, 2006.
[46] A. Benfell, K. Liu, "Specifying a Pragmatic Web-Browser for the Automated Discovery of Web Services in a Service Oriented Architecture Context," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Organisational Semiotics, p. 99, 2007.
[47] M. Pistore, F. Barbon, P. Bertoli, D. Shaparau, P. Traverso, "Planning and Monitoring Web Service Composition," Proc. Workshop Planning and Scheduling for Web and Grid Services, 2006.
[48] E. Martinez, Y. Lesperance, "Web Service Composition as a Planning Task: Experiments Using Knowledge-Based Planning," Proc. Workshop Planning and Scheduling for Web and Grid Services, pp. 62-69, 2004.
[49] U. Keller, R. Lara, H. Lausen, A. Polleres, and D. Fensel, "Automatic Location of Services," Proc. Second European Semantic Web Conf. (ESWC '05), May 2005.
3 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool