The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.02 - April-June (2013 vol.6)
pp: 177-192
J. Sinclair , Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of Warwick, Coventry, UK
M. Joy , Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of Warwick, Coventry, UK
Jane Yin-Kim Yau , Dept. of Comput. Sci., Malmo Univ., Malmo, Sweden
S. Hagan , Sch. of Comput. & Math., Univ. of Ulster, Newtownabbey, UK
Reusable learning objects support packaging of educational materials allowing their discovery and reuse. Open educational resources emphasize the need for open licensing and promote sharing and community involvement. For both teachers and learners, finding appropriate tried and tested resources on a topic of interest and being able to incorporate them within or alongside other learning materials can enrich provision and share best practice. Resources are made available by a number of general and subject-specific repositories, but there are also many educational resources residing outside these repositories which may provide useful additional materials. Potential users of materials need to be able to locate relevant material and to assess it with respect to a number of factors (such as suitability for purpose and license requirements). However, even such basic requirements can be less than straightforward to determine. This paper presents a view of the field from the user's perspective, bringing together themes from existing research relating to practice-oriented concerns including discoverability, reusability, and quality. It provides a background in this area, exploring current trends, controversies, and research findings. The discussion is also aligned with current provision and practice, indicating areas where further research, provision, and support would be useful.
Indexes, discovery, Indexes, reuse, Education, learning, reusable learning objects, open educational resources, repositories, quality
J. Sinclair, M. Joy, Jane Yin-Kim Yau, S. Hagan, "A Practice-Oriented Review of Learning Objects", IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol.6, no. 2, pp. 177-192, April-June 2013, doi:10.1109/TLT.2013.6
[1] D.A. Wiley, "Connecting Learning Objects to Instructional Design Theory: A Definition, a Metaphor, and a Taxonomy," The Instructional Use of Learning Objects, D.A. Wiley, ed., Agency for Instructional Technology, http://reusability.orgread/, 2000.
[2] N. Friesen, "Three Objections to Learning Objects," Online Education Using Learning Objects, R. McGreal, ed., pp. 59-70, RoutledgeFalmer, 2004.
[3] X. Ochoa and E. Duval, "Quantitative Analysis of Learning Object Repositories," IEEE Trans. Learning Technologies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 226-238, July-Sept. 2009.
[4] S.E. Metros, "Learning Objects: A Rose by Any Other Name," EDUCAUSE Rev., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 12-13, 2005.
[5] "World Open Educational Resources Congress," UNESCO, Paris OER Declaration, MULTIMEDIA/ HQ/CI/CI/pdf/EventsParis%20OER%20 Declaration.pdf , 2012.
[6] T. Caswell, S. Henson, M. Jensen, and D. Wiley, "Open Educational Resources: Enabling Universal Education," Int'l Rev. Research in Open and Distance Learning, vol. 9, no. 1, view/4691009, Feb. 2008.
[7] L. Masterman and J. Wild, "JISC Open Educational Resources Programme: Phase 2 OER Impact Study: Research Report," elearning/oerJISCOERImpactStudyResearchReportv1-0.pdf , 2011.
[8] S. Carson, "The Unwalled Garden: Growth of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, 2001-2008," Open Learning, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 23-29, 2009.
[9] IEEE Standard for Learning Object Metadata (1484.12.1-2002), IEEE, 2002.
[10] D.A. Wiley, ed. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Agency for Instructional Technology, http://reusability.orgread/, 2000.
[11] Learning Objects for Instruction: Design and Evaluation, P.T. Northrup, ed. Idea Group Publishing, 2007.
[12] P. Polsani, "Use and Abuse of Reusable Learning Objects," J. Digital Information, vol. 3, no. 4, 8988, 2003.
[13] R.J. Beck, "What Are Learning Objects?" http://www4.uwm. edu/cielearning_objects.cfm?gid=56 , 2009.
[14] R. McGreal, "Learning Objects: A Practical Definition," Int'l J. Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 21-32, 2004.
[15] J. Lukasiak, S. Agostinho, S. Bennett, B. Harper, L. Lockyer, and B. Powley, "Learning Objects and Learning Designs: An Integrated System for Reusable, Adaptive and Shareable Learning Content," Assoc. for Learning Technology J., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 151-169, 2005.
[16] B. Bannan-Ritland, N. Dabbagh, and K. Murphy, "Learning Object Systems as Constructivist Learning Environments: Related Assumptions, Theories and Application," The Instructional Use of Learning Objects, D.A. Wiley, ed., Agency for Instructional Technology, http://reusability.orgread/, 2000.
[17] B. Harvey, "Learning Objects and Instructional Design," Int'l Rev. Research in Open and Distance Learning, view/227310, July 2005.
[18] A. Ip, I. Morrison, and M. Curie, "What Is a Learning Object, Technically?" Proc. AACE WebNet Conf., pp. 580-586, , 2001.
[19] K. Harman and A. Kohang, Learning Objects, Standards, Metadata, Repositories and LCMS. Informing Science Inst., 2007.
[20] R. Pathmeswaran and V. Ahmed, "SWmLOR: Technolgies for Developing Semantic Web Based Mobile Learning Object Repository," Built and Human Environment Rev., vol. 2, no. 1, download/1617, 2009.
[21] D. Churchill, "Towards a Useful Classification of Learning Objects," Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 479-497, 2007.
[22] J. McDonald, "Learning Object: A New Definition, a Case Study and an Argument for Change," Proc. 23rd Ann. Ascilite Conf.: Who's Learning? Whose Technology?, conferences/ sydney06/proceeding/pdf_papersp99.pdf, 2006.
[23] P.E. Parrish, "The Trouble with Learning Objects," Educational Technology, Research and Development, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 49-67, 2004.
[24] D. Wiley, "The Reusability Paradox," http:/ html , 2001.
[25] D. Wiley, "David Wiley,", 2011.
[26] F. Krauss and M. Ally, "A Study of the Design and Evaluation of a Learning Object and Implications for Content Development," Interdisciplinary J. Knowledge and Learning Objects, vol. 1, pp. 1-22, 2005.
[27] K. Fill, S. Leung, D. DiBiase, and A. Nelson, "Repurposing a Learning Activity on Academic Integrity: The Experience of Three Universities," J. Interactive Media in Education, vol. 1, pp. 1-12,, 2006.
[28] D. Atkins, J. Brown, and A. Hammond, "A Review of the Open Educational Resource Movement: Achievements, Challenges and New Opportunities," Report to the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, ReviewoftheOERMovement.pdf , 2007.
[29] H. Abelson, "The Creation of OpenCourseWare at MIT," J. Science Education and Technology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 164-174, 2008.
[30] C. Hockings, P. Brett, and M. Terentjevs, "Making a Difference—Inclusive Learning and Teaching in Higher Education through Open Educational Resources," Distance Education, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 237-252, 2012.
[31] M. Weller, "Big and Little OER," Proc. Seventh Open Education Conf., 10609/4851/6Weller.pdf, 2010.
[32] D. Wiley, "Impediments to Learning Object Reuse and Openness as a Potential Solution," Revista Brasileira de Informática na Educação, vol. 17, no. 3, IR/id808, 2009.
[33] A. Lane and P. McAndrew, "Are Open Educational Resources Systematic or Systemic Change Agents for Teaching Practice?" British J. Educational Technology, vol. 41, no. 6, pp 952-962, 2010.
[34] L. Masterman and J. Wild, "JISC OER Impact Study Research Report," programmes/ elearning/oerJISCOERImpactStudyResearch Reportv1-0.pdf , 2011.
[35] A. Thomas, "The OER Turn," 16the-oer-turn/, 2011.
[36] G. Conole, "Integrating OER into Open Educational Practice," Open Educational Resources and Change in Higher Education: Reflections from Practice, J. Glennie, K. Harley, N. Butcher, and T. van Wyk, eds., chapter 7, UNESCO, PublicationDocuments pub_PS_OER_web.pdf, 2012.
[37] D. White and M. Manton, "Open Educational Resources: The Value of Reuse in Higher Education," JISC Report, elearning/oerOERTheValueOfReuseInHigherEducation.pdf , 2011.
[38] N. Friesen, "What Are Educational Objects?" Interactive Learning Environments, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 219-230, 2001.
[39] R. Robson, "Reusability and Reusable Design," Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology, second ed., R. Reiser and J.V. Dempsey, eds., pp. 301-309. Prentice-Hall. 2006.
[40] K. Thompson and F. Yonekura, "Practical Guidelines for Learning Object Granularity from One Higher Education Setting," Interdisciplinary J. Knowledge and Learning Objects, vol. 1, pp. 163-179, 2005.
[41] H. Man and Q. Jin, "Putting Adaptive Granularity and Rich Context into Learning Objects," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET), pp. 140-145, 2010.
[42] R. McGreal, "A Typology of Learning Object Repositories," Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training, H.H. Adelsberger, J.M. Pawlowski, and D.G. Sampson, eds., pp. 5-28. Springer, 2008.
[43] F. Neven and E. Duval, "Reusable Learning Objects: A Survey of LOM-Based Repositories," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia, pp. 291-294, 2002.
[44] S. Downes, "Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources," Interdisciplinary J. Knowledge and Learning Objects, vol. 3, pp. 29-44, 2007.
[45] D. Wiley, "On the Sustainability of Open Educational Resource Initiatives in Higher Education," OECD, , 2007.
[46] X. Ochoa, "Learning Object Repositories Are Useful, but Are They Usable?" Proc. IADIS Int'l Conf. Applied Computing, pp. 138-144, 2005.
[47] J. Najjar, J. Klerkx, R. Vuorikara, and E. Duval, "Finding Appropriate Learning Objects: An Empirical Evaluation," Proc. European Conf. Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, pp. 323-335, 2005.
[48] IMS Global Learning Consortium "Learning Object Discovery and Exchange," http://www.imsglobal. orglode.html, 2013.
[49] G. Richards, M. Hatala, and R. McGreal, "POOL, POND and SPLASH. Portals for Online Objects for Learning," Online Education Using Learning Objects, R. McGreal, ed., RoutledgeFalmer, 2004.
[50] S. Leslie, "Finding Learning Objects—Walking the Talk," blog, 05/06finding- learning-objects-walking-the-talk /, 2004.
[51] C. Rosas, G. Ponce, and G. Lopez, "Finding Learning Objects on the Web," Proc. World Conf. E-Learning in Corporate, Govt., Healthcare, and Higher Education, pp. 3649-3653, 2008.
[52] C. Curlango-Rosas, G. Ponce, G. Lopez-Morteo, and M. Mendiola, "Leveraging Google Web Search Technology to Find Web-Based Learning Objects," Proc. Latin Am. Web Congress, http://www. doi/10.1109LA-WEB.2009.11, 2009.
[53] S. Ternier, D. Massart, A. Campi, S. Guinea, S. Ceri, and E. Duval, "Interoperability for Searching Learning Object Repositories: The ProLearn Query Language," D-Lib Magazine, vol. 14, nos. 1/2, , 2008.
[54] S. Ternier, D. Olmedilla, and E. Duval, "Peer-to-Peer versus Federated Search: Towards More Interoperable Learning Object Repositories," Proc. World Conf. Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecomm., P. Kommers and G. Richards, eds., pp. 1421-1428, 2005.
[55] N. Manouselis, R. Vuorikari, and F. Van Assche, "Collaborative Recommendation of E-Learning Resources: An Experimental Investigation," J. Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 26, pp. 227-242, 2010.
[56] A. Gil, S. Rodriguez, F. De la Prieta, B. Martin, and M. Moreno, "Intelligent Recovery Architecture for Personalized Content," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 2012.
[57] J. Mason, "Context and Metadata for Learning, Education and Training," Online Education Using Learning Objects, R. McGreal, ed., pp. 168-181, RoutledgeFalmer, 2004.
[58] J. Sanz-Rodriguez, J.M. Dodero, and S. Sánchez Alonso, "Ranking Learning Objects through Integration of Different Quality Indicators," IEEE Trans. Learning Technologies, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 358-363, Oct.-Dec. 2010.
[59] J. Najjar and E. Duval, "Actual Use of Learning Objects and Metadata: An Empirical Analysis," TCDL Bull., vol. 2, no. 2, najjar.html, 2006.
[60] E. Duval and W. Hodgins, "Metadata Matters," Proc. Int'l Conf. Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, 2004.
[61] O. Motelet, N.A. Baloian, and J.A. Pino, "Hybrid System for Generating Learning Object Metadata," J. Computers, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 34-42, 2007.
[62] H.C. Davis, L. Carr, J.M.N. Hey, Y. Howard, D. Millard, D. Morris, and S. White, "Bootstrapping a Culture of Sharing to Facilitate Open Educational Resources," IEEE Trans. Learning Technologies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 96-109, Apr. 2011.
[63] K. Elliot and K. Sweeney, "Quantifying the Reuse of Learning Objects," Australasian J. Educational Technology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 137-142, 2008.
[64] X. Ochoa and E. Duval, "Measuring Learning Object Reuse," Proc. Third European Conf. Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL '08), pp. 322-325, 2008.
[65] S.M. Duncan, "Patterns of Learning Object Reuse in the Connexions Repository," PhD thesis, Utah State Univ.,, 2009.
[66] K.I. Clements and J.M. Pawlowski, "User-Oriented Quality for OER: Understanding Teachers' Views on Re-Use, Quality and Trust," J. Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 4-14, 2012.
[67] Advanced Distributed Learning, "SCORM 2004, fourth ed.," http:/, 2004.
[68] K. Verbert and E. Duval, "ALOCOM: A Generic Content Model for Learning Objects," Int'l J. Digital Library, vol. 9, pp. 1-63, 2008.
[69] P. Balatsoukas, A. Morris, and A. O'Brien, "Learning Objects Update: Review and Critical Approach to Content Aggregation," Educational Technology and Soc., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 119-130, 2008.
[70] T. Boyle, "Design Principles for Authoring Dynamic, Reusable Learning Objects," Australian J. Educational Technology, vol. 19, no. 1 pp. 46-58, 2003.
[71] R. Jones and T. Boyle, "Learning Object Patterns," Interdisciplinary J. Knowledge and Learning Objects, vol. 3, pp. 19-28, 2007.
[72] P. Han and B. Kramer, "Generating Interactive Learning Objects from Configurable Sample," Proc. Int'l Conf. Mobile, Hybrid, and On-line Learning, pp. 1-6, 2009.
[73] R. Morales, D. Leeder, and T. Boyle, "A Case Study in the Design of Generative Learning Objects (GLOs): Applied Statistical Methods GLOs," Proc. World Conf. Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecomm., pp. 302-310, 2005.
[74] J. Vargo, J.C. Nesbit, K. Belfer, and A. Archambault, "Learning Object Evaluation: Computer Mediated Collaboration and Inter-Rater Reliability," Int'l J. Computers and Applications, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1-8, 2003.
[75] J.C. Nesbit and J. Li, "Web-Based Tools for Learning Object Evaluation," Proc. Int'l Conf. Education and Information Systems: Technologies and Application, pp. 334-339, 2004.
[76] R.J. Windle, H. Wharrad, D. Leeder, and R. Morales, "Analysis of the Pedagogical Attributes of Learning Objects in an Attempt to Identify Reusable Designs," Proc. World Conf. Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecomm., vol. 15, pp. 2676-2685, 2007.
[77] A. Tzikopoulos, N. Manouselis, and R. Vuorikari, "An Overview of Learning Object Repositories," Learning Objects for Instruction: Design and Evaluation, P. Northrup, ed., pp. 29-55, Idea Group Publishing, 2007.
[78] R.H. Kay and L. Knaack, "A Multi-Component Model for Assessing Learning Objects: The Learning Object Evaluation Metric (LOEM)," Australasian J. Educational Technology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 574-591, 2008.
[79] Y. Eguigure, A. Zapata, V. Menendez, and M. Prieto, "Quality Evaluation Model for Learning Objects from Pedagogical Perspective: A Case of Study," Iberoam. J. Applied Computing, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 16-28, 2011.
[80] R. Vuorikari, N. Manouselis, and E. Duval, "Using Metadata for Storing, Sharing and Reusing Evaluations for Social Recommendations," Social Information Retrieval Systems: Emerging Technologies and Applications for Searching the Web Effectively, D.H. Go and S. Foo, eds., pp. 165-178, Idea Group Publishing, 2006.
[81] S. Nurmi and T. Jaakkola, "Promises and Pitfalls of Learning Objects," Learning, Media and Technology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 269-285, 2006.
[82] Y. Akpinar and H. Simsek, "Should K-12 Teachers Develop Learning Objects? Evidence from the Field with K-12 Students," Int'l J. Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 31-44, 2007.
[83] Y. Akpinar, "Validation of a Learning Object Review Instrument: Relationship between Ratings of Learning Objects and Actual Learning Outcomes," Interdisciplinary J. Knowledge and Learning Objects, vol. 4, pp. 291-302, 2008.
[84] C. Cechinel and S. Sanchez-Alonso, "Analyzing Associations between the Different Ratings Dimensions of the MERLOT Repositor," Interdisciplinary J. E-Learning and Learning Objects, vol. 7, pp. 1-9, 2011.
[85] N. Friesen, "A Gentle Introduction to Technical E-Learning Standards," Canadian J. Learning and Technology, vol. 30, no. 3, 136129, 2004.
[86] S. Monge, R. Ovelar, and I. Azpeitia, "Repository 2.0: Social Dynamics to Support Community Building in Learning Object Repositories," Interdisciplinary J. E-Learning and Learning Objects, vol. 4, pp. 191-204, 2008.
[87] D. Wiley, "Learning Objects, Content Management and E-Learning," Content Management for E-Learning, N. Ferran and J. Minguillón, eds., chapter 3, Springer, 2011.
[88] D. White and M. Manton, "Open Educational Resources: The Value of Reuse in Higher Education," elearning/oerOERTheValue OfReuseInHigherEducation.pdf , 2011.
97 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool