1. Duration and intensity: Duration is a characteristic of mood, while intensity is a feature of emotion.
2. Timing: It is easier to distinguish between the beginning, climaxing, and end of an emotion than of a mood.
3. Cause-reaction: The cause of an emotion is usually more evident than the cause of a mood. In addition, emotion triggers a target reaction, while mood frequently provokes vague reactions.
4. Information: Emotion carries information concerning the environment, e.g., information about a threat in our environment, while mood carries information concerning our capacity to face the threat of the environment. Similarly, mood informs individuals about their progress toward personal goals [ 39], [ 40].
1. the number of the current question,
2. the number of questions remaining before the end of the test,
3. the number of questions that the student still needs to answer in order to reach his goal,
4. the number that shows whether the remaining questions are more or fewer than the number of questions that the student has to answer so as to reach his goal, i.e., student's hope to accomplish their goal,
5. the number of correct answers in a row before the current question,
6. the number of incorrect answers in a row before the current question,
7. the number of correct answers up to the current question,
8. the number of incorrect answers up to the current question,
9. the score, and
10. the mood that the student indicated by moving the slide bar.
Table 3. Comparing the Previous Method with the New Method Indicates that Weighting the Recently Previous Correct or Incorrect Answers, Proportionally to How Recent They Are, Increases the Model's Efficacy
• C.N. Moridis is with the Department of Information Systems, University of Macedonia, 156 Egnatia Avenue, 54006, Thessaloniki, Greece.
• A.A. Economides is with the Department of Information Systems, University of Macedonia, 156 Egnatia Avenue, 54006, Thessaloniki, Greece. E-mail: email@example.com.
Manuscript received 14 Sept. 2008; revised 27 Dec. 2008; accepted 15 Feb. 2009; published online 20 Feb. 2009.
For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org, and reference IEEECS Log Number TLTSI-2008-09-0076.
Digital Object Identifier no. 10.1109/TLT.2009.12.
Christos N. Moridis received the BS degree in communication, media, and culture from the Panteion University of Athens in 2004 and the MSc degree in advanced systems of computing and communications specializing in intelligent systems from the Department of Electrical and Computing Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, in 2007. Currently, he is working toward the PhD degree in the Information Systems Department at the University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece. His research interests include affective learning systems, emotional agents, fuzzy systems, interface design, and search engines.
Anastasios A. Economides received the Dipl Eng degree in electrical engineering from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in 1984. Holding a Fulbright and a Greek State fellowship, he received the MSc and PhD degrees in computer engineering from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, in 1987 and 1990, respectively. At graduation, he received the outstanding academic achievement award from the University of Southern California. Currently, he is an associate professor and chairman of the Information Systems Department at the University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece. He is the director of Computer Networks and Telematics Applications (CONTA) Laboratory. His research interests include e-learning, e-services, and networking techno-economics. He has published more than 150 peer-reviewed papers. He has been the plenary speaker in two international conferences. He has served on the editorial board of several international journals, on the program committee of many international conferences, and as a reviewer for many international journals and conferences. Finally, he has been the principal investigator of several funded projects and participated in many funded projects.