Introduction to the IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing
Pages: pp. 3-21
Welcome to the IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing ( TCC). It is my privilege and honor to serve as the inaugural Editor-in-Chief of TCC. I would like to thank the IEEE and the world-wide Cloud Computing community for giving me the opportunity to serve them.
Let me first share some of the open opportunities and challenges in Cloud Computing and then introduce the transactions and its progress.
1. Opportunities and Challenges
Computing is being transformed to a model consisting of services that are commoditized and delivered in a manner similar to utilities such as water, electricity, gas, and telephony. In such a model, users access services based on their requirements regardless of where the services are hosted. Several computing paradigms have promised to deliver this utility computing vision. Cloud computing is the most recent emerging paradigm promising to turn the vision of “computing utilities” into reality.
Cloud computing started with a risk-free concept: Let someone else take the ownership of setting up of IT infrastructure and let end-users tap into it, paying only for what is been used. A service offering computation resources is frequently referred to as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and the applications as Software as a Service (SaaS). An environment used for construction, deployment, and management of applications is called PaaS (Platform as a Service).
Fig. 1. A bird’s eye view of Cloud computing.
Several IT vendors are promising to offer storage, computation, and application hosting services, and provide coverage on several continents, offering Service-Level Agreements (SLA) backed performance and uptime promises for their services. Cloud computing delivers infrastructure, platform, and software (application) as services, which are made available as subscription-oriented services in a pay-as-you-go model to consumers. The price that CSPs (Cloud Service Providers) charge depends on the quality of service (QoS) expectations of CSCs (Cloud Service Consumers).
Cloud computing fosters elasticity and seamless scalability of IT resources that are offered to end users as a service through the Internet. Cloud computing can help enterprises improve the creation and delivery of IT solutions by providing them with access to services in a cost-effective and flexible manner. A bird’s eye view of Cloud computing is shown in Fig. 1.
Clouds can be classified into three categories, depending on their accessibility restrictions and the deployment model. They are:
Private Cloud, and
A public Cloud is made available in a pay-as-you-go manner to the general public users irrespective of their origin or affiliation. A private Cloud’s usage is restricted to members, employees, and trusted partners of the organization. A hybrid Cloud enables the use of private and public Cloud in a seamless manner. In a typical public Cloud scenario, a third-party vendor delivers services such as computation, storage, networks, virtualization, and applications to various customers. In a private Cloud environment, internal IT resources are used to serve their internal users and customers. Businesses are adopting public Cloud services to save capital expenditure and operational costs by leveraging Cloud’s elastic scalability and market-oriented costing features. Nevertheless, public Cloud computing also raises concerns about data security, management, data transfer, performance, and level of control.
Cloud computing applications span many domains, including business, technology, government, health care, smart grids, intelligent transportation networks, life sciences, disaster management, automation, data analytics, and consumer and social networks. Various models for the creation, deployment, and delivery of these applications as Cloud services have emerged.
The business potential of Cloud computing is recognized by several market research analysts. My own guesstimate is that the worldwide spending on Cloud services will reach about a trillion dollar by 2020. To achieve this potential, several technological, business, security, and application-oriented challenges need to be addressed.
2. Open Research Challenges
Cloud computing introduces many challenges for system and application developers, engineers, system administrators, and service providers (see Fig. 2). These include:
How do we effectively manage the virtual machine (VM) life cycle to deliver quality expectations of consumers and at the same time reduce the cost delivery of services?
How do we secure the data and computation on the VMs managed by Cloud service providers?
How do we guarantee users’ privacy and trust requirements?
How do we meet legal and regulatory compliance requirements about data hosting in Clouds?
What should the model of pricing for services be?
How do we manage Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and how do we guarantee quality of service (QoS) satisfaction and prevent or minimize SLA violations?
How do we balance the energy consumption and performance of data centers so that users can be charged at a nominal rate?
How do we choose data centers’ locations so that data security, operation costs, and energy consumption meet the terms in the SLA signed with users?
Should the application logic and its scalability be handled by the application itself or be entrusted to a third party service?
What level of replication of data and application components is needed to guarantee reliable delivery of services?
How do we create Cloud applications rapidly and manage their life cycle?
What standards and interfaces are needed for portability and scalability of application services?
Fig. 2. Key open challenges in Cloud computing.
3. Introducing the IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing
The Cloud computing paradigm is rapidly progressing, as evidenced by its adoption for the creation and delivery of innovative applications in several domains including scientific, consumer, social networks, health care, enterprises, banking, government, and big data. Several trade magazines have been actively featuring industrial development in Cloud computing. The IEEE, as part of its “IEEE Cloud Computing Initiative,” has identified the need for a respected journal for publishing research in Cloud computing. To support rapid dissemination of innovative research results (i.e., theoretical and practical models, algorithms, technologies, and solutions for Cloud computing) at a similar pace for the benefit of society, the IEEE launched the new IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing. The new transactions will publish peer-reviewed articles that provide innovative research ideas and results in all areas relating to Cloud computing. Topics relating to novel theory, algorithms, performance analyses, and applications of techniques relating to all areas of Cloud computing will be considered for the transactions. For more details, please visit the TCC website: http://www.computer.org/tcc
The new transactions is managed by the IEEE Computer Society in partnership with other sister societies, namely, the IEEE Communications Society, the IEEE Systems Council, the IEEE Power & Energy Society, and the IEEE Consumer Electronics Society. The strategic directions of the transactions are managed by the Steering Committee chaired by Professor Jon Rokne.
4. Progress, Process, and Acknowledgements
In my role as the inaugural Editor-in-Chief (EiC) of TCC, one of my first tasks was to establish the Editorial Board (EB) whose members will be responsible for the technical quality of the journal. The members of the EB will serve as Associate Editors and they will be involved in the management of the peer reviews of the submitted manuscripts and selection of reviewers.
In consultation with the Steering Committee of TCC, I have identified leading, internationally recognized, researchers working in Cloud computing from all over the world. On approval from the Steering Committee, the IEEE Computer Society has appointed them as Associate Editors and members of the EB. A complete list of EB members is included at the end of this introduction.
Since its launch early this year, TCC has been accepting submission of papers that introduce original and innovative ideas. That means submission of “extended versions” of already published works (e.g., conference/workshop papers) is not encouraged unless they contain significant number of “new and original” ideas/contributions along with more than 49 percent “brand new” material.
TCC has been attracting submissions from academic researchers, industrial practitioners, policy and standards developers, and application communities from all over the world. During the last five months, we have received more than 150 submissions. In addition, we have scheduled four special issues focused on specific challenges in Cloud computing. They are also encouraging submission of revised versions of papers that are recognized as best papers from associated conferences.
Along with EB members, I have been managing the content of the transactions and the rigorous peer review process to ensure publication of original and high-quality papers. Based on the quality, focus, and scope of each submitted paper, it either gets assigned to a suitable Associate Editor or desk rejected with suitable suggestions. Each paper that advances to the full review phase is assigned to an appropriate Associate Editor, who seeks three or more review reports from peers and experts in the field and makes an appropriate recommendation. As the EiC, I have been able to make the final decision on each paper based on peer review reports and the recommendation of AE. The IEEE Computer Society is managing the manuscripts workflow from their initial submission to the final publication.
The papers accepted for the first issue of TCC cover hot topics in Cloud computing ranging from Cloud security to energy-efficient resource provisioning. I hope you will enjoy reading them and get inspired to innovate further.
I would like to thank the authors, reviewers, and readers for their interest in TCC. I acknowledge the strong support offered by all members of the Steering Committee, colleagues from the IEEE Computer Society, members of the Editorial Board, and the Cloud computing community world-wide in getting TCC up and running.
I request your continued support for establishing TCC as the premier forum for Cloud computing research and innovation. Your feedback and comments on further improving TCC are highly appreciated.
About the Authors
Beniamino Di Martino received the MS degree (magna cum laude) in physics and the PhD degree in information engineering, both from the University of Naples, Italy, in 1992 and 1996, respectively. Since 2005, he has been a full professor of information systems at the Second University of Naples, Italy. In 1994, he joined the Institute for Software Technology and Parallel Systems at the University of Vienna, Austria, where he was a researcher until 1998, funded from 1996 to 1998 by the EC Marie Curie Support scheme (Marie Curie Fellow). In 1998, he moved to the Second University of Naples, Italy, where he was an assistant professor until 2002, and an associate professor of information systems until 2005. He has been a scientific consultant for IBM Italia and ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy, and the Environment). He is vice director of the Department of Industrial and Information Engineering. He is the author of eight international books and more than 200 publications in international journals and conferences. He is project coordinator of EU funded FP7-ICT-2010-256910 Project “mOSAIC - Open-Source API and Platform for Multiple Clouds.” He has been participating to various research projects supported by national and international organizations (international projects include: EU-ICT Mosaic and EU-SMARTCITIES CoSSmiC, EU-ARTEMIS Crystal, EU-IST OntoWeb and APART, EU-Esprit HPF+ and PPPE, CEI PACT, EU-TMR, Austrian-SFB AURORA, Austrian FWF HLPS; Italian national projects include: MUR PRIN “Cloud@Home” (responsible for SUN unit), “Mosaico” and “Iside,” FAR—Laboratori Pubblico-Privati—“LC3” (responsible for SUN Unit), CNR PF and Agenda 2000 (Project Responsible)). He is an editor/associate editor of three international journals and an editorial board member of many international journals. He served as general and program chairman, and a member of program committees, of several international conferences, and as guest editor for several journals’ special issues. He acted as Chair of the Nomination Committee for the “2012 IEEE Award of Excellence in Scalable Computing” and as a member of the Nomination Committee for the “2009 IEEE TCSC Medal for Excellence in Scalable Computing.” He was vice Chair of the Executive Board of the IEEE CS Technical Committee on Scalable Computing. He is a member of the IEEE Working Group on Cloud Interoperability. He is a member of the Cloud Standards Customer Council. He is a member of the Cloud Computing Experts’ Group of European Commission - Internet of Services, Software and Virtualization Unit. He is a member of the Steering Committee of IDEM (IDEntity Management) Italian Federation. He acted as Evaluator and Reviewer of scientific projects for the European Commission (FP7 programmes ICT, ICT-PSP and eInfrastructures), for the European Research Council (ERC), for the Belgium Research Ministry, for the Luxembourg Research Ministry, for the Chile Research Ministry, for the Italian Research and Economic Development Ministries, for the Campania, Piemonte, and Calabria Regional Governments. He acted as a member of Committee for Promotion to positions of Senior Lecturer at the University of Cork, Ireland, and at the University of Lille, France. He acted as a member of Examination Committees for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Computer Science for the University of Oxford, the University of Cyprus, The University of La Laguna, the University of Sidney, the University of Vienna, the University of Genova, the Calabria University, the University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, the Politechnical University of Turin, and the Second University of Naples. His research interests include: knowledge discovery and management, semantic web and semantic web services, semantic-based information retrieval, Cloud computing, high performance computing and architectures, mobile and intelligent agents and mobile computing, reverse engineering, automated program analysis and transformation, algorithmic patterns recognition and program comprehension, and image analysis.
Erol Gelenbe is a fellow of the IEEE and the ACM, and the Dennis Gabor Chair Professor in electrical and electronic engineering at Imperial College. He has introduced performance models based on diffusion approximations, invented new mathematical models such as G-networks and the Random Neural Network, and contributed to performance engineering software tools such as FLEXSIM and QNAP that are applied in industry and used in academia. His designs include the SYCOMORE multiprocessor packet switch, the fiber optics random access network XANTHOS, optimal protocols for random access communications, optimum check-points for databases, the FLEXSIM database driven simulator for manufacturing systems, and the first fully implemented Software Defined Network CPN (Cognitive Packet Network) and its adaptive routing protocol. He currently works on the interaction between Energy Consumption and Quality of Service in ICT, and on the security of Mobile Networks. His awards include the Grand Prix France Telecom of the French Academy of Sciences (1996), ACM’s SIGMETRICS Life-Time Achievement Award http://www.sigmetrics.org/achievementaward-2008.shtml, the UK’s IET Oliver Lodge Medal http://eandt.theiet.org/magazine/2011/01/profile-prof-gelenbe.cfm, and the Parlar Science Foundation Award (Turkey, 1994). An elected member of the French National Academy of Engineering, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Science Academy of Istanbul, Turkey, he has received Honoris Causa doctorates from the Universities of Liege (Belgium), Roma-Tor Vergata, and Bogazici (Istanbul). His recent papers have appeared in the Physical Review, the Communications of the ACM, the ACM/IEEE Transactions on Bioinformatics, the ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, the ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, the IEEE Transactions on Nano-Bio Systems, the Proceedings of the Royal Society, and the Computer Journal. He coordinates the EU FPC ICT-8 Project NEMESYS (2012-2015) on Mobile Network Security, and his other funded research projects are EPSRCECROPS (2013-2016) on Energy Savings and Harvesting in ICT, a MoD/DSTL Project on Energy Savings in Digital Cities (2012-2016), EU FP7 PANACEA (2013-2016) on Self-Organising Cloud Computing, and the Smart Networks at the Edge project of the European Institute of Technology. A Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE Communication Society for 2013-2014, his recent publications can be found at http://san.ee.ic.ac.uk and http://sa.ee.ic.ac.uk. Recent/future conference chairships and PCs include: General Chair IEEENCCA (3-5 December 2012) https://sites.google.com/site/ieeencca2012, co-general chair IEEE HPCC 2013 http://trust.csu.edu.cn/conference/hpcc2013/, PerNEMWorkshop co-chair since 2012 (PERCOM Conference), IEEE MASCOTS 2013 TPC Co-Chair, http://ieee-ssci.org, and ICAC 2013, 26-28 June 2013. He is an associate editor of Acta Informatica, IEEE Networks, ACM Ubiquity, Performance Evaluation, Theory and Applications of Informatics, Telecommunication Systems, and InfoCommunications Journal.
Vijaya Varadharajan received the PhD degree in computer and communication security (1981-1984) from Plymouth and Exeter Universities in the UK, which was sponsored by BT Research Labs. He received the electronic engineering degree from Sussex University, UK (1978-1981). He is currently a professor and Microsoft Chair in Innovation in Computing at Macquarie University (2001-to date). He is also the Director of Information and Networked System Security (INSS) Research. Before this, he was chairman of the School of Computing and IT at the University of Western Sydney (1996-2000). Previously, he headed Security Research at HP Labs Bristol, UK (1988-1995). During his tenure at HP Labs., under his leadership some six different security technologies were transferred into successful HP products in divisions. He also headed the Technical Security Strategy Initiative at HP under the Senior Vice President. Before this, he was a research manager at British Telecom Research Labs. UK (1987-1988). From 1985 until 1987, he was a research fellow and lecturer in computer science at Plymouth and Reading Universities. He was awarded the 1981 Prize of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, IEE, for outstanding performance at Sussex University and the Committee of Vice Chancellors and Principals Award (UK). He has published more than 320 papers in international journals and conferences, has coauthored and edited eight books on information technology, security, networks, and distributed systems, and holds two patents. His research work over the years has contributed to the development of several successful secure commercial systems in the areas of secure distributed applications, secure network systems, security tools, secure mobile systems, as well as cryptographic and smart card-based systems and secure financial, telecom, and medical solutions. His current areas of research interest include web services security, secure distributed applications, trusted computing, security policies and management in distributed systems, Internet security, secure mobile agents, security in mobile networks, wireless security, secure e-commerce, security policies, models and architectures, and protocols. He has successfully supervised many PhD research students in the UK and Australia (more than 40). He has given 20 keynote speeches at international conferences, and has given more than 200 invited speeches in various acadmic and industrial workshops and forums. He has been a program committee member/chair for more than 200 international conferences all over the world. He is an editorial board member of several journals, including the prestigious ACM Transactions on Information System Security, the Journal of Information Security, Computer and Communication Security Reviews, as well as the IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing ( TDSC) and IEEE Security and Privacy. His research work has been supported by industry such as Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, British Telecom, and Fujitsu, as well as government agencies such as the Australian Research Council (ARC), UK Research Council (EPSRC), Australian Defense (DSD), Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet Australia, and the European Union (COST, EUREKA, ESPRIT, RACE, INFOSEC). He is a fellow of the British Computer Society (FBCS), a fellow of the IEE, UK (FIEE), a fellow of the Institute of Mathematics and Applications, UK (FIMA), a fellow of the Australian Institute of Engineers (FIEAust), and a fellow of the Australian Computer Society (FACS).