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2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems (2013)
Hangzhou China
Oct. 14, 2013 to Oct. 16, 2013
pp: 209-213
Gholamhossein Ekbatanifard , Islamic Azad Univ., Lahijan, Iran
Philipp Sommer , CSIRO, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Branislav Kusy , CSIRO, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Venkat Iyer , Delft Univ. of Technol., Delft, Netherlands
Koen Langendoen , Delft Univ. of Technol., Delft, Netherlands
The high popularity of wireless sensor networks has led to novel applications with diverse, and sometimes demanding, data communication requirements, for example, streaming camera images in surveillance applications. In response bulk-data transfer protocols were proposed that provide low latency and high throughput communication over multiple hops. However, due to typical hardware platforms only providing a single radio, which implies that forwarding nodes need to serialize send and receive actions, the maximum end-to-end throughput is limited to 1/2 the radio capacity. To bridge this performance gap we present Fast Forward, a connection-oriented multi-hop bulk-data transfer protocol optimized for dual-radio platforms, data packets are sent across a path of alternating radio and frequency channels to exploit parallel transfers and avoid intra-path interference. We implemented Fast Forward in TinyOS to run on the Opal platform equipped with two IEEE 802.15.4 radios. In this paper we show that, with some minor tweaking of the original protocol stack to streamline internal access to the SPI bus, Fast Forward is capable of operating both radios in parallel so packets can be forwarded at full speed. We have evaluated Fast Forward on a 12-node testbed in an office environment. The sustained throughput peaks around 23.7 kBps, or 76 % of the radio capacity while the best single-radio protocol flattens out at 19 %. When introducing artificial packet loss the built-in link-level acknowledgements ensure that Fast Forward manages to deliver packets with high yield (close to 100 %) at the sink across 11 hops.
Throughput, Protocols, Wireless sensor networks, Radio transceivers, Channel capacity, Reliability, Hardware
Gholamhossein Ekbatanifard, Philipp Sommer, Branislav Kusy, Venkat Iyer, Koen Langendoen, "FastForward: High-Throughput Dual-Radio Streaming", 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems, vol. 00, no. , pp. 209-213, 2013, doi:10.1109/MASS.2013.41
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