2015 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS) (2015)
May 25, 2015 to May 29, 2015
We present a new distributed model for graph computations motivated by limited information sharing. Two or more independent entities have collected large social graphs. They wish to compute the result of running graph algorithms on the entire set of relationships. Because the information is sensitive or economically valuable, they do not wish to simply combine the information in a single location. We consider two models for computing the solution to graph algorithms in this setting: 1) limited-sharing: the two entities can share only a poly logarithmic size subgraph, 2) low-trust: the entities must not reveal any information beyond the query answer, assuming they are all honest but curious. We believe this model captures realistic constraints on cooperating autonomous data centres' have results for both models for s-t connectivity, one of the simplest graph problems that requires global information in the worst case. In the limited-sharing model, our results exploit social network structure. Standard communication complexity gives polynomial lower bounds on s-t connectivity for general graphs. However, if the graph for each data centre has a giant component and these giant components intersect, then we can overcome this lower bound, computing-t connectivity while exchanging O(log ^2 n) bits for a constant number of data centers. We can also test the assumption that the giant components overlap using O(log ^2 n) bits provided the (unknown) overlap is sufficiently large. The second result is in the low trust model. We give a secure multi-party computation (MPC) algorithm that 1) does not make cryptographic assumptions when there are 3 or more entities, and 2) is efficient, especially when compared to the usual garbled circuit approach. The entities learn only the yes/no answer. No party learns anything about the others' graph, not even node names. This algorithm does not require any special graph structure. This secure MPC result for s-t connectivity is one of the first that involves a few parties computing on large inputs, instead of many parties computing on a few local values.
Social network services, Computational modeling, Complexity theory, Protocols, Data models, Standards, Privacy
J. Berry, M. Collins, A. Kearns, C. A. Phillips, J. Saia and R. Smith, "Cooperative Computing for Autonomous Data Centers," 2015 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS), Hyderabad, India, 2015, pp. 38-47.