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2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2015)
Santiago, Chile
Dec. 7, 2015 to Dec. 13, 2015
ISSN: 2380-7504
ISBN: 978-1-4673-8390-5
pp: 1502-1510
Large scale duplicate detection, clustering and mining of documents or images has been conventionally treated with seed detection via hashing, followed by seed growing heuristics using fast search. Principled clustering methods, especially kernelized and spectral ones, have higher complexity and are difficult to scale above millions. Under the assumption of documents or images embedded in Euclidean space, we revisit recent advances in approximate k-means variants, and borrow their best ingredients to introduce a new one, inverted-quantized k-means (IQ-means). Key underlying concepts are quantization of data points and multi-index based inverted search from centroids to cells. Its quantization is a form of hashing and analogous to seed detection, while its updates are analogous to seed growing, yet principled in the sense of distortion minimization. We further design a dynamic variant that is able to determine the number of clusters k in a single run at nearly zero additional cost. Combined with powerful deep learned representations, we achieve clustering of a 100 million image collection on a single machine in less than one hour.
Quantization (signal), Visualization, Distortion, Artificial neural networks, Search problems, Probabilistic logic, Metadata

Y. Avrithis, Y. Kalantidis, E. Anagnostopoulos and I. Z. Emiris, "Web-Scale Image Clustering Revisited," 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), Santiago, Chile, 2015, pp. 1502-1510.
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