2011 IEEE 17th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (2011)
San Antonio, TX USA
Feb. 12, 2011 to Feb. 16, 2011
Doe Hyun Yoon , The University of Texas at Austin, Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept
Naveen Muralimanohar , Hewlett-Packard Labs, Intelligent Infrastructure Lab
Jichuan Chang , Hewlett-Packard Labs, Intelligent Infrastructure Lab
Parthasarathy Ranganathan , Hewlett-Packard Labs, Intelligent Infrastructure Lab
Norman P. Jouppi , Hewlett-Packard Labs, Intelligent Infrastructure Lab
Mattan Erez , The University of Texas at Austin, Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept
Emerging non-volatile memories such as phase-change RAM (PCRAM) offer significant advantages but suffer from write endurance problems. However, prior solutions are oblivious to soft errors (recently raised as a potential issue even for PCRAM) and are incompatible with high-level fault tolerance techniques such as chipkill. To additionally address such failures requires unnecessarily high costs for techniques that focus singularly on wear-out tolerance. In this paper, we propose fine-grained remapping with ECC and embedded pointers (FREE-p). FREE-p remaps fine-grained worn-out NVRAM blocks without requiring large dedicated storage. We discuss how FREE-p protects against both hard and soft errors and can be extended to chipkill. Further, FREE-p can be implemented purely in the memory controller, avoiding custom NVRAM devices. In addition to these benefits, FREE-p increases NVRAM lifetime by up to 26% over the state-of-the-art even with severe process variation while performance degradation is less than 2% for the initial 7 years.
N. Muralimanohar, M. Erez, P. Ranganathan, D. H. Yoon, J. Chang and N. P. Jouppi, "FREE-p: Protecting non-volatile memory against both hard and soft errors," 2011 IEEE 17th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture(HPCA), San Antonio, TX USA, 2011, pp. 466-477.