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Proceedings Eighth International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (2002)
Boston, Massachusettes
Feb. 2, 2002 to Feb. 6, 2002
ISBN: 0-7695-1525-8
pp: 0029
Greg Semeraro , University of Rochester
Grigorios Magklis , University of Rochester
Rajeev Balasubramonian , University of Rochester
David H. Albonesi , University of Rochester
Sandhya Dwarkadas , University of Rochester
Michael L. Scott , University of Rochester
As clock frequency increases and feature size decreases, clock distribution and wire delays present a growing challenge to the designers of singly-clocked, globally synchronous systems. We describe an alternative approach, which we call a Multiple Clock Domain (MCD) processor, in which the chip is divided into several (coarse-grained) clock domains, within which independent voltage and frequency scaling can be performed. Boundaries between domains are chosen to exploit existing queues, thereby minimizing inter-domain synchronization costs. We propose four clock domains, corresponding to the front end (including L1 instruction cache), integer units, floating point units, and load-store units (including L1 data cache and L2 cache). We evaluate this design using a simulation infrastructure based on SimpleScalar and Wattch. In an attempt to quantify potential energy savings independent of any particular on-line control strategy, we use off-line analysis of traces from a single-speed run of each of our benchmark applications to identify profitable reconfiguration points for a subsequent dynamic scaling run. Dynamic runs incorporate a detailed model of inter-domain synchronization delays, with latencies for intra-domain scaling similar to the whole-chip scaling latencies of Intel XScale and Transmeta LongRun technologies. Using applications from the MediaBench, Olden, and SPEC2000 benchmark suites, we obtain an average energy-delay product improvement of 20% with MCD compared to a modest 3% savings from voltage scaling a single clock and voltage system.
Multiple Clock Domain, Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, Off-Line Analysis Tool, Low Power, Dynamic Reconfiguration Algorithm

G. Semeraro, G. Magklis, R. Balasubramonian, D. H. Albonesi, S. Dwarkadas and M. L. Scott, "Energy-Efficient Processor Design Using Multiple Clock Domains with Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling," Proceedings Eighth International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture(HPCA), Boston, Massachusettes, 2002, pp. 0029.
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