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2013 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA) (2001)
Nuevo Leone, Mexico
Jan. 20, 2001 to Jan. 24, 2001
ISBN: 0-7695-1019-1
pp: 0147
Se-Hyun Yang , Carnegie Mellon University
Babak Falsafi , Carnegie Mellon University
Michael D. Powell , Purdue University
Kaushik Roy , Purdue University
T.N. Vijaykumar , Purdue University
Abstract: Deep-submicron CMOS design maintain high transistor switching speeds by scaling down the supply voltage and proportionately reducing the transistor threshold voltage. Lowering the threshold voltage increases leakage energy dissipation due to subthreshold leakage current even when the transistor is not switching. Estimates suggest a five-fold increase in leakage energy in every future generation. In modern microarchitectures, much of the leakage energy is dissipated in large on-chip cache memory structures with high transistor densities. While cache utilization varies both within and across applications, modern cache designs are fixed in size resulting in transistor leakage inefficiencies.This paper explores an integrated architectural and circuit-level approach to reducing leakage energy in instruction caches (i-caches). At the architectural level, we propose the Dynamically ResIzable i-cache (DRI i-cache), a novel i-cache design that dynamically resizes and adapts to an application's required size. At the circuit-level, we use gated-Vdd, a mechanism that effectively turns off the supply voltage to, and eliminates leakage in, the SRAM cells in a DRI i-cache successfully and robustly exploits the cache size variability both within and across applications. Compared to a conventional i-cache using an aggressively-scaled threshold voltage a 64K DRI i-cache reduces on average both the leakage energy-delay product and cache size by 62%, with less than 4% impact on execution time.
Se-Hyun Yang, Babak Falsafi, Michael D. Powell, Kaushik Roy, T.N. Vijaykumar, "An Integrated Circuit/Architecture Approach to Reducing Leakage in Deep-Submicron High-Performance I-Caches", 2013 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), vol. 00, no. , pp. 0147, 2001, doi:10.1109/HPCA.2001.903259
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