A Matrix Chernoff Bound for Strongly Rayleigh Distributions and Spectral Sparsifiers from a few Random Spanning Trees
2018 IEEE 59th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) (2018)
Oct 7, 2018 to Oct 9, 2018
Strongly Rayleigh distributions are a class of negatively dependent distributions of binary-valued random variables [Borcea, Brändén, Liggett JAMS 09]. Recently, these distributions have played a crucial role in the analysis of algorithms for fundamental graph problems, e.g. Traveling Salesman Problem [Gharan, Saberi, Singh FOCS 11]. We prove a new matrix Chernoff bound for Strongly Rayleigh distributions. As an immediate application, we show that adding together the Laplacians of ε-2 log2 n random spanning trees gives an (1± ε) spectral sparsifiers of graph Laplacians with high probability. Thus, we positively answer an open question posted in [Baston, Spielman, Srivastava, Teng JACM 13]. Our number of spanning trees for spectral sparsifier matches the number of spanning trees required to obtain a cut sparsifier in [Fung, Hariharan, Harvey, Panigraphi STOC 11]. The previous best result was by naively applying a classical matrix Chernoff bound which requires ε-2 n log n spanning trees. For the tree averaging procedure to agree with the original graph Laplacian in expectation, each edge of the tree should be reweighted by the inverse of the edge leverage score in the original graph. We also show that when using this reweighting of the edges, the Laplacian of single random tree is bounded above in the PSD order by the original graph Laplacian times a factor log n with high probability, i.e. LT ≤ O(log n) LG. We show a lower bound that almost matches our last result, namely that in some graphs, with high probability, the random spanning tree is not bounded above in the spectral order by [log n/loglog n] times the original graph Laplacian. We also show a lower bound that in ε-2 log n spanning trees are necessary to get a (1± ε) spectral sparsifier.
approximation theory, computational complexity, graph theory, probability, trees (mathematics)
R. Kyng and Z. Song, "A Matrix Chernoff Bound for Strongly Rayleigh Distributions and Spectral Sparsifiers from a few Random Spanning Trees," 2018 IEEE 59th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), Paris, France, 2019, pp. 373-384.