Proceedings 41st Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (2000)
Redondo Beach, California
Nov. 12, 2000 to Nov. 14, 2000
R. Karp , California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA
C. Schindelhauer , California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA
S. Shenker , California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA
B. Vocking , California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA
Investigates the class of epidemic algorithms that are commonly used for the lazy transmission of updates to distributed copies of a database. These algorithms use a simple randomized communication mechanism to ensure robustness. Suppose n players communicate in parallel rounds in each of which every player calls a randomly selected communication partner. In every round, players can generate rumors (updates) that are to be distributed among all players. Whenever communication is established between two players, each one must decide which of the rumors to transmit. The major problem is that players might not know which rumors their partners have already received. For example, a standard algorithm forwarding each rumor form the calling to the called players for /spl Theta/(ln n) rounds needs to transmit the rumor /spl Theta/(n ln n) times in order to ensure that every player finally receives the rumor with high probability. We investigate whether such a large communication overhead is inherent to epidemic algorithms. On the positive side, we show that the communication overhead can be reduced significantly. We give an algorithm using only O(n ln ln n) transmissions and O(ln n) rounds. In addition, we prove the robustness of this algorithm. On the negative side, we show that any address-oblivious algorithm needs to send /spl Omega/(n ln ln n) messages for each rumor, regardless of the number of rounds. Furthermore, we give a general lower bound showing that time and communication optimality cannot be achieved simultaneously using random phone calls, i.e. every algorithm that distributes a rumor in O(ln n) rounds needs /spl omega/(n) transmissions.
randomised algorithms; communication complexity; replicated databases; information theory; database theory; randomized rumor spreading; epidemic algorithms; lazy update transmission; distributed database copies; randomized communication mechanism; robustness; parallel rounds; randomly selected communication partner; communication overhead; message transmissions; address-oblivious algorithm; lower bound; time optimality; communication optimality; random telephone calls; commmunication complexity
C. Schindelhauer, B. Vocking, S. Shenker and R. Karp, "Randomized rumor spreading," Proceedings 41st Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science(FOCS), Redondo Beach, California, 2000, pp. 565.