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Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines, Annual IEEE Symposium on (2006)
Napa, California
Apr. 24, 2006 to Apr. 26, 2006
ISBN: 0-7695-2661-6
pp: 165-174
Alex K. Jones , University of Pittsburgh
Raymond R. Hoare , University of Pittsburgh
Swapna R. Dontharaju , University of Pittsburgh
Shenchih Tung , University of Pittsburgh
Ralph Sprang , University of Pittsburgh
Josh Fazekas , University of Pittsburgh
James T. Cain , University of Pittsburgh
Marlin H. Mickle , University of Pittsburgh
Current radio frequency identification (RFID) systems generally have long design times and low tolerance to changes in specification. This paper describes a field programmable, low-power active RFID tag, and its associated specification and automated design flow. RFID primitives to be supported by the tag are enumerated with RFID macros, or assembly-like descriptions of the tag operations. From these, the RFID preprocessor generates templates automatically. The behavior of each RFID primitive is specified using ANSI C in the template. The resulting file is compiled by the RFID compiler. A smart buffer sits between the transceiver and the tag controller, to detect whether incoming packets are intended for the tag. By doing so, the main controller may remain powered down to reduce power consumption. Two system-on-a-chip implementation strategies are presented. First, a microprocessor based system for which a C program is automatically generated. The second includes a block of low-power FPGA logic. The user supplied RFID logic in ANSI-C is automatically converted into combinational VHDL by the RFID compiler. Based on a test program, the processors required 183, 43, and 19 muJ per transaction for StrongARM, XScale, and EISC processors, respectively. By replacing the processor with a Coolrunner II, the controller can be reduced to 1.11 nJ per transaction
field programmable gate arrays, radiofrequency identification, system-on-chip, transceivers

A. K. Jones et al., "A Field Programmable RFID Tag and Associated Design Flow," 2006 14th Annual IEEE Symposium on Field Programmable Custom Computing Machines(FCCM), Napa, CA, 2008, pp. 165-174.
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