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2015 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS) (2015)
Lund, Sweden
July 8, 2015 to July 10, 2015
ISSN: 1068-3070
ISBN: 978-1-4673-7570-2
pp: 163-173
ABSTRACT
Schedulability analysis for real-time systems has been the subject of prominent research over the past several decades. One of the key foundations of schedulability analysis is an accurate worst case execution time (WCET) measurement for each task. In real-time systems that support preemption, the cache related preemption delay (CRPD) can represent a significant component (up to 44% as documented in research literature) [1] -- [3] of variability to overall task WCET. Several methods have been employed to calculate CRPD with significant levels of pessimism that may result in a task set erroneously declared as non-schedulable. Furthermore, they do not take into account that CRPD cost is inherently a function of where preemptions actually occur. Our approach for computing CRPD via loaded cache blocks (LCBs) is more accurate in the sense that cache state reflects which cache blocks and the specific program locations where they are reloaded. Limited preemption models attempt to minimize preemption overhead (CRPD) by reducing the number of allowed preemptions and/or allowing preemption at program locations where the CRPD effect is minimized. These algorithms rely heavily on accurate CRPD measurements or estimation models in order to identify an optimal set of preemption points. Our approach improves the effectiveness of limited optimal preemption point placement algorithms by calculating the LCBs for each pair of adjacent preemptions to more accurately model task WCET and maximize schedulability as compared to existing preemption point placement approaches. We propose an optimal preemption point placement algorithm using dynamic programming. Lastly, we will demonstrate, using a case study, improved task set schedulability and optimal preemption point placement via our new LCB characterization.
INDEX TERMS
Processor scheduling, Algorithm design and analysis, Real-time systems, Delays, Computational modeling, Accuracy, Nickel,scheduability analysis, cache-related preemption delay, explicit preemption placement, limited preemption scheduling, worst-case execution time
CITATION
John Cavicchio, Corey Tessler, Nathan Fisher, "Minimizing Cache Overhead via Loaded Cache Blocks and Preemption Placement", 2015 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), vol. 00, no. , pp. 163-173, 2015, doi:10.1109/ECRTS.2015.22
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