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2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2010)
San Francisco, CA, USA
June 13, 2010 to June 18, 2010
ISBN: 978-1-4244-6984-0
pp: 2559-2566
Francis Bach , INRIA
Yann LeCun , Courant Institute, New York University
Jean Ponce , Ecole Normale Supérieure
Many successful models for scene or object recognition transform low-level descriptors (such as Gabor filter responses, or SIFT descriptors) into richer representations of intermediate complexity. This process can often be broken down into two steps: (1) a coding step, which performs a pointwise transformation of the descriptors into a representation better adapted to the task, and (2) a pooling step, which summarizes the coded features over larger neighborhoods. Several combinations of coding and pooling schemes have been proposed in the literature. The goal of this paper is threefold. We seek to establish the relative importance of each step of mid-level feature extraction through a comprehensive cross evaluation of several types of coding modules (hard and soft vector quantization, sparse coding) and pooling schemes (by taking the average, or the maximum), which obtains state-of-the-art performance or better on several recognition benchmarks. We show how to improve the best performing coding scheme by learning a supervised discriminative dictionary for sparse coding. We provide theoretical and empirical insight into the remarkable performance of max pooling. By teasing apart components shared by modern mid-level feature extractors, our approach aims to facilitate the design of better recognition architectures.

F. Bach, Y. Boureau, Y. LeCun and J. Ponce, "Learning mid-level features for recognition," 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition(CVPR), San Francisco, CA, USA, 2010, pp. 2559-2566.
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