2015 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, Networks, and Applications (CPSNA) (2015)
Kowloon, Hong Kong
Aug. 19, 2015 to Aug. 21, 2015
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/CPSNA.2015.23
The problem of minimizing energy for a performance constraint (e.g., Real-time deadline or quality-of-service requirement) has been widely studied, both in theory and in practice. Theoretical models have indicated large potential energy savings, but practical concerns have made these savings hard to realize. Instead, practitioners often rely on heuristic solutions, which achieve good results in practice but tend to be system-specific in efficacy. An example is the race-to-idle heuristic, which makes all resources available until a task completes and then idles. Theory predicts poor energy savings, but practitioners have reported good empirical results. To help bridge the gap between theory and practice, this paper presents a geometrical framework for analyzing the energy optimality of resource allocation under performance constraints. The geometry of the problem allows us to derive an optimal strategy and three commonly used heuristics: 1) race-to-idle, 2) pace-to-idle a near-optimal idling strategy, and 3) no-idle which never idles. We then implement all strategies and test them empirically for seven benchmarks on four different multicore systems, including both x86 and ARM. We find that race-to-idle is near optimal on older systems, but can consume as much as 3× more energy than the optimal strategy. In contrast, pace-to-idle is never more than 12% worse than optimal.
Resource management, Program processors, Energy consumption, Multicore processing, Optimization, Heuristic algorithms, Power demand
D. H. Kim, C. Imes and H. Hoffmann, "Racing and Pacing to Idle: Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Energy Optimization Heuristics," 2015 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, Networks, and Applications (CPSNA), Kowloon, Hong Kong, 2015, pp. 78-85.