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Issue No.04 - July-Aug. (2013 vol.11)
pp: 54-63
Did Edward Snowden cause irreparable harm, or did he reveal facts that should be publicly examined? What are the facts, anyhow? This article seeks to put the Snowden revelations in context, explaining what's new, why it matters, and what might happen next.
Government agencies, Network security, Terrorism, Surveillance, National Security Agency, surveillance, Edward Snowden, NSA, classified, privacy
Susan Landau, "Making Sense from Snowden: What's Significant in the NSA Surveillance Revelations", IEEE Security & Privacy, vol.11, no. 4, pp. 54-63, July-Aug. 2013, doi:10.1109/MSP.2013.90
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3. S. Shane and R. Somaiya, “New Leak Indicates Britain and US Tracked Diplomats,” New York Times,16 June 2013, p. A7.
4. L. Poitras and G. Greenwald, “NSA Whistleblower Edward Snowden: ‘I Don't Want to Live in a Society That Does These Sort of Things,’” [video], Guardian,9 June 2013; .
5. M. Schwirtz and J. Preston, “June 23: Updates on Snowden's Asylum Pursuit,” New York Times,23 June 2013; 23tracking-snowden/.
6. J. Herb, “NSA Leak Is Treason, Says Feinstein,” The Hill, 11 June 2013; .
7. J. Elsea, “Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information,” Congressional Research Service, 13 Jan. 2013.
8. S. Goldenberg, “Al Gore: NSA's Secret Surveillance Not Really ‘The American Way,’” Guardian, 15 June 2013; .
9. G. Kessler, “The Fact Checker: James Clapper's ‘Least Untruthful’ Answer to the Senate,” Washington Post,12 June 2013; post/james-clappers-least-untruthful-statement-to-the-senate/ 2013/06/11e50677a8-d2d8-11e2-a73e-826d299ff459_blog.html .
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16. E. Holder, “Exhibit A: Procedures Used by the National Security Agency for Targeting Non-United States Persons Reasonably Believed to Be Located outside the United States to Acquire Foreign Intelligence Information Pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as Amended,”28 July 2009; jun/20exhibit-a-procedures-nsa-document .
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19. US District Court, Southern District of Florida, Case 11-60285-CR-Rosenbaum, United States of America vs. Daryl Davis and Hasam Williams, et al., “Government's Response to the Court's Order and Motion for a Protective Order Pursuant to Section 4 of the Classified Information Procedures Act and Rule 16(d)(I) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and Memorandum of Law” (redacted, unclassified version).
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24. M. Birnbaum, “Merkel, Other European Leaders Raise Concerns on US Surveillance,” Washington Post, 10 June 2013; world39862553_1_u-s-citizens-surveillance-program-intelligence .
25. E. Pfanner, “US Rejects Telecommunications Treaty,” New York Times, 14 Dec. 2013, p. B1.
26. E. Holder, “Exhibit B: Minimization Procedures Used by the National Security Agency in Connection with Acquisitions of Foreign Intelligence Information Pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as Amended,” 28 July 2009; jun/20exhibit-a-procedures-nsa-document .
27. E. MacAskill et al., “GCHQ Taps Fibre-Optic Cables for Secret Access to World's Communications,” Guardian, 21 June 2013; .
28. L. Lam, “Exclusive: NSA Targeted China's Tsinghua University in Extensive Hacking Attacks, says Snowden,” South China Morning Post, 23 June 2013; .
29. L. Lam and S. Chen, “Exclusive: US Spies on Chinese Mobile Companies, Steals SMS Data, Edward Snowden,” South China Morning Post, 23 June 2013; .
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35. “British Spies Help Prevent Al-Qaeda Inspired Attack on New York Subway,” Telegraph, 9 Nov. 2009; usa/6529436British-spies-help-prevent-al-Qaeda-inspired-attack-on-New-York-subway.html .
36. D. Johnston and P. Zielbauer, “A Nation Challenged: The Investigation; 3 Held in Detroit after Aircraft Diagrams Are Found,” New York Times, 20 Sept. 2001; .
37. E. Lichtblau and W. Glaberson, “Threats and Responses: Financing Terror; Millions Raised for Qaeda in Brooklyn, US Says,” New York Times, 5 Mar. 2003; .
38. D. Cave and C. Gentile, “Five Convicted in Plot to Blow Up Sears Tower,” New York Times, 13 May 2009, p. A19.
39. K. Dilanian and M. Hay Brown, “NSA Chief Says Programs Disrupted 50 Terrorist Plots,” Baltimore Sun, 18 June 2013; newsbs-md-nsa-surveillance-20130618_1_nsa-chief-washington-post-intelligence-community .
40. Offices of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, Department of Justice, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, “Unclassified Report on the President's Surveillance Program,” Report 2009-0013-AS, 10 July 2009.
41. S. Shane, “Complaint Seek Punishment for Classification of Documents,” New York Times, 2 Aug. 2011, p. A16.
42. E. Goitein and D. Shapiro, “Reducing Overclassification through Accountability,” Brennan Center for Justice, New York Univ., 2011.
43. D. Sanger and J. Peters, “A Promise of Changes for Access to Secrets,” New York Times, 14 June 2013, p. A18.
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