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Issue No. 04 - July/August (2010 vol. 8)
ISSN: 1540-7993
pp: 70-73
Daniel Bilar , University of New Orleans
Attacks targeting something or someone indirectly—nth order attacks against end systems--have occurred on a large scale in real life. It goes to the heart of how conflicts between open societies and their enemies are waged: trust subsystems. Trust helps lower tangible and intangible transaction costs between individuals, corporations, and the state. Members of "high-trust" societies like the United States leverage trust beyond family ties to form efficient civic and economic organizations. Because trust permeates every facet of open societies, it's a very easy assumption for malicious actors to violate.
nth order attack, Highly Optimized Tolerance, assumption violation, trust, attack, subsystem, systems, security

D. Bilar, "Degradation and Subversion through Subsystem Attacks," in IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 8, no. , pp. 70-73, 2010.
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