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Issue No. 06 - November/December (2007 vol. 5)
ISSN: 1540-7993
pp: 25-31
Kjell J. Hole , University of Bergen, Norway
Vebjørn Moen , University of Bergen, Norway
André N. Klingsheim , University of Bergen, Norway
Knut M. Tande , University of Bergen, Norway
This case study focuses on real-world ATM card misuse, illustrating how too much secrecy led to a deterioration of PIN-based authentication procedures, and why a bank's refusal to share technical information is a threat to a customer during a conflict.
ATM system, DES encryption, PIN codes, security

V. Moen, A. N. Klingsheim, K. J. Hole and K. M. Tande, "Lessons from the Norwegian ATM System," in IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 5, no. , pp. 25-31, 2007.
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