1. handle it gracefully by ignoring it,
2. execute on it and experience no ill effects, or
3. execute on it and experience catastrophic effects.
• provide a system with the proactive capability of reinitializing to a known reliable state before a failure occurs or
• provide a system with the reactive capability of reconfiguring after a failure occurs such that the service provided by the software remains operational.
Jeffrey Voas is a cofounder and chief scientist of Cigital. His research interests include composition strategies for CTOS software, software product certification and warranties, and software quality measurement. He coauthored Software Fault Injection: Inoculating Programs Against Errors (Wiley, 1998) and is working on Software Certificates and Warranties: Ensuring Quality, Reliability, and Interoperability. He received his BS in computer engineering from Tulane University and his PhD in computer science from the College of William & Mary. He was the program chair for the Eighth IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems. He was named the 1999 Young Engineer of the Year by the District of Columbia Council of Engineering and Architectural Societies, was corecipient of the 2000 IEEE Reliability Engineer of the Year award, and received an IEEE Third Millennium Medal and an IEEE Computer Society Meritorious Service award. He is a senior member of the IEEE, a vice president of the IEEE Reliability Society, and an associate editor in chief on IEEE Software. Contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org.