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<p>It is argued that object-oriented analysis is not a fully mature upstream-development method because its specification process is a complex round-trip method that has not been described in detail. The round-trip OOA model involves data and activities that are intricately dependent on each other. If an analyst tries to use OOA to model specification sequentially, backward control flows will occur. An OOA specification process is presented that is decomposed into steps, substeps, and activities, that clarifies the dataflow between each step, substep, and activity. paying close attention to the chains of data dependence to expose activities and their relations, and that defines OOA control flows, in an effort to minimize process retrogression. The specification process is applied to a definite specification example and to formalization and visualization of an OOA.</p>
specification modelling formalisation; object-oriented analysis; data; activities; backward control flows; process retrogression; formalization; visualization; formal specification; object-oriented programming

N. Kotaka, S. Honiden and Y. Kishimoto, "Formalizing Specification Modeling in OOA," in IEEE Software, vol. 10, no. , pp. 54-66, 1993.
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