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<p>A real-time operating system kernel, called the Spring kernel, that provides some of the basic support required for large, complex, next-generation real-time systems, especially in meeting timing constraints, is presented. The approach meets the need to build predictable yet flexible real-time systems. Most current real-time operating systems contain the same basic paradigms found in time-sharing operating systems and often use a basic priority-scheduling mechanism that provides no direct support for meeting timing constraints. Spring uses two criteria to classify tasks' interaction with and effects on the environment: importance and timing requirements. Implementation experience with Spring is described.</p>
real-time operating system kernel; Spring kernel; basic support; next-generation real-time systems; timing constraints; flexible real-time systems; basic priority-scheduling mechanism; importance; timing requirements; operating systems (computers); real-time systems; scheduling

J. A. Stankovic and K. Ramamritham, "The Spring Kernel: A New Paradigm for Real-Time Systems," in IEEE Software, vol. 8, no. , pp. 62-72, 1991.
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