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<p>Debugging techniques and tools that draw on both the high-level concepts (defined as functions) used in formal specifications and the abstraction and information-hiding constructs used in modern languages are described. The technique is based on two components. One is a novel specification language with support tools. Ada programs are specified with a language that the authors created called Anna. Their tool set is used to check the Ada program's runtime behavior for consistency with the Anna specifications. The other technique uses the tool set to find missing specifications by comparing the specification with program prototypes and to test and debug Ada programs after an accepted specification has been developed. The approach, called two-dimensional pinpointing, locates inconsistencies in software that is structured in levels.</p>
2D pinpointing; formal specifications; high-level concepts; information-hiding; specification language; support tools; Ada programs; Anna; program prototypes; two-dimensional pinpointing; Ada; formal specification; program debugging; program testing; software tools; specification languages

D. Luckham, S. Sankar and S. Takahashi, "Two-Dimensional Pinpointing: Debugging with Normal Specifications," in IEEE Software, vol. 8, no. , pp. 74-84, 1991.
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