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Issue No. 04 - October-December (2017 vol. 16)
ISSN: 1536-1268
pp: 36-46
Ken Nakagaki , MIT Media Lab
Sean Follmer , Stanford University
Artem Dementyev , MIT Media Lab
Joseph A. Paradiso , MIT Media Lab
Hiroshi Ishii , MIT Media Lab
This article starts with an overview of work on shape-changing line interfaces in the field of HCI, including the authors' previous work on actuated-line interfaces, LineFORM and ChainFORM. Related research from other fields, such as robotics and material science, are also introduced. Then, several potential implementation methods are compared and discussed in depth with regards to their potential for future research and applications. The authors also investigate the interaction design space around actuated line interfaces, categorized into four groups: physical display, tangible interaction, constraints, and customization. Leveraging this design space, they present potential applications and demonstrate their use with the LineFORM and ChainFORM prototypes. Envisioning a future where shape-changing lines are woven into daily life, this article aims to explore and initiate a broad research space around line-based shape-changing interfaces and to encourage future researchers and designers to investigate these novel directions. This article is part of a special issue on shape-changing interfaces.
Deformable models, Human computer interaction, Three-dimensional displays, Robots, Shape analysis, Internet of Things, Embedded systems, User interfaces

K. Nakagaki, S. Follmer, A. Dementyev, J. A. Paradiso and H. Ishii, "Designing Line-Based Shape-Changing Interfaces," in IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 36-46, 2017.
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