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As technology scales, variability will continue to become worse. Random dopantfluctuations and sub-wavelength lithography will yield static variations, supply voltageand temperature variations will affect circuit performance and leakage power, soft-errorrates will continue to rise, and transistor aging will become worse. We discuss theseeffects and propose solutions to build reliable systems with billions of unreliablecomponents.
Hardware Computer System Organization
Shekhar Borkar, "Designing Reliable Systems from Unreliable Components: The Challenges of Transistor Variability and Degradation", IEEE Micro, vol. 25, no. , pp. 10-16, November/December 2005, doi:10.1109/MM.2005.110
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