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Issue No. 03 - May/June (2005 vol. 25)
ISSN: 0272-1732
pp: 7-9
Richard H. Stern ,
It is the policy of the IEEE and many other standard-setting organizations to request that any patented technology incorporated into a technical standard be made available to all users of the standard on reasonable and nondiscriminatory (RAND) terms (see IEEE-SA Standards Board Bylaws, clause 6, available at By the same token, such organizations typically require that participants engaged in formulating a standard disclose whether the proposed standard?s use would infringe patents that their companies own. They must also disclose whether such patents will be subject to RAND licensing.

R. H. Stern, "The antitrust ghost in the standard-setting machine," in IEEE Micro, vol. 25, no. , pp. 7-9, 2005.
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