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<p>Progress in hardware integration technology for full- and semicustom implementations enables cost-efficient, innovative computing architectures that could provide alternatives or add-ons to the current von Neumann architecture. Radical, alternative architectures not in compliance with this classical imperative approach--for example, those that support functional programming--have not succeeded in replacing the von Neumann architecture. But several basic approaches--especially an inherent exploitation of the parallelizibility of certain problems--continue to imply modifications of the imperative style. Although unorthodox, these architectures nevertheless constitute well-fitting add-ons to a basic von Neumann architecture. Such approaches include <ul> <li>massively parallel processing,</li> <li>instruction-level parallelism,</li> <li>dataflow machines,</li> <li>associative architectures,</li> <li>neural networks, and </li> <li>biologically inspired architectures.</li></ul></p>
Karl E. Grosspietsch, "Guest Editor's Introduction: Unorthodox Computer Architectures", IEEE Micro, vol. 22, no. , pp. 8-9, May/June 2002, doi:10.1109/MM.2002.1013299
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