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Deep-submicron technology allows billions of transistors on a single die, potentially running at GHz frequencies. Such robust technology leads to at least two separate processor optimization paradigms: server processors and client processors. High-end server processors will continue to evolve from current architectural trends. They will make gains in performance with significant increases in complexity. Performance is expected to improve marginally from increased ILP and, more significantly, from reduced cycle time but at the expense of power. On the other hand, commodity system-on-chip client processors will focus on functionality, power dissipation, cost, and other system-related issues. Both processor paradigms are expected to pay increased attention to reliability and overall computational integrity. Successful implementations depend on the processor architect's ability to foresee technology trends and understand the changing design trade-offs for their specific applications.
Michael J. Flynn, Kevin W. Rudd, Patrick Hung, "Deep-Submicron Microprocessor Design Issues", IEEE Micro, vol. 19, no. , pp. 11-22, July/August 1999, doi:10.1109/40.782563
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