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The Intel 4004, completed in March 1971, is the world's first microprocessor, the product that sparked the beginning of the mass computerization of society. The history of this remarkable product is told by the four people responsible for its creation. Much has been written about the 4004, often reporting only the recollections of one of its developers. For the first time, the story is told by all four contributors working together to harmonize their recollections. This article describes the various phases of the 4004's creation: its conception; architecture development; design, layout, and debug; the circumstances surrounding its introduction into the marketplace; and the initial market reactions. A description of the 4004's operation and its technical details are also provided with many illustrative figures. In addition, the article includes a sidebar on the early marketing of the microprocessor, another important aspect that led to its success. This will be the definitive reference article for the future.
Microprocessors, semiconductors, Intel 4004, microprocessor design, microprocessor pioneers
Marcian E. Hoff Jr., Masatoshi Shima, Federico Faggin, Stanley Mazor, "The History of the 4004", IEEE Micro, vol. 16, no. , pp. 10-20, December 1996, doi:10.1109/40.546561
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