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Compact analog VLSI velocity sensors, with on-board photoreceptor arrays, invariant to absolute illuminance and stimulus contrast, that signal reliably over large ranges of magnitude in speed, have been recently proposed. In this article we make use of such analog velocity sensors at the system level. Specifically, we discuss three chips that integrate and process the measured velocity vectors for locating the "Focus of Expansion," "Motion Discontinuities" and for computing the "Time to Contact". We describe the functionality of their component modules and their principles of operation. Data measurements obtained from the developed VLSI chips demonstrate their correct performance and their limits of operation.

C. Koch, J. Kramer and G. Indiveri, "System Implementations of Analog VLSI Velocity Sensors," in IEEE Micro, vol. 16, no. , pp. 40-49, 1996.
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