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We have developed a spatial light modulator technology based on foundry silicon fabrication processes, that employs a thin, ferroelectric liquid crystal light modulating layer at the substrate's surface. We have realized electrically addressed display devices with resolutions up to 256\times 256 and frame rates up to 10\thinspace kHz, as well as optically addressed "smart pixel" arrays for low-level image processing. In the course of our investigations, there have emerged not only theoretical principles that govern the performance of this class of devices, but practical limitations and also bonuses. Design innovations and effective use of modern process features have advanced performance rapidly. There is yet significant potential for further extending the speed, resolution, and functionality of this class of devices.
Spatial light modulators, smart pixels, displays, liquid crystals, image processing.

T. J. Drabik, D. J. Ward, D. Banas, M. A. Handschy, S. D. Gaalema and A. H. Titus, "2D Silicon/Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators," in IEEE Micro, vol. 15, no. , pp. 67-76, 1995.
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