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Issue No. 02 - March/April (1993 vol. 13)
ISSN: 0272-1732
pp: 46-58
<p>The characteristics, advantages, and potential applications of amalgam systems, which offer a promising alternative to traditional electronics solders for lower temperature (and hence lower cost) processes and components, without the environmental drawbacks of most solder systems, are described. Amalgams are nonequilibrium, mechanically alloyed materials formed at or near room temperature between a liquid metal and a powder. They offer exceptional thermal stability and superior joint strength and thermal cycle measurements. Gallium/nickel, gallium/copper, and gallium/copper/nickel amalgam alloys are discussed. The amalgamation methods, requirements for electronics amalgams, amalgam hardening mechanism, and amalgam wetting techniques are also discussed. Applications of amalgams to large die area attachments and flip chips are described.</p>

C. A. MacKay, "Amalgams for Improved Electronics Interconnection," in IEEE Micro, vol. 13, no. , pp. 46-58, 1993.
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