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<p> The design of the 68040, a third-generation, full-32-b microprocessor in the Motorola 68000 family, is presented. The 68040 integrates over 1.2 million transistors on one chip and can execute the complete 68020 microprocessor and 68882 floating-point coprocessor instruction sets. Pipelined integer and floating-point execution units that operate concurrently with separate internal memory controllers and an autonomous bus controller contribute to its high performance level. Physical caches of 4 kB each for instruction and data reside on chip. Separate address-translation caches of 64 entries apiece operate in parallel with the instruction and data caches. This arrangement provides complete memory management in a virtual, demand-paged operating system. The design team explains its total approach and the workings of the integer and floating-point units.</p>
William B. Ledbetter, Jr., Ralph C. McGarity, Eric E. Quintana, Michael G. Gallup, Robin W. Edenfield, Russel A. Reininger, "The 68040 Processor. I. Design and Implementation", IEEE Micro, vol. 10, no. , pp. 66-78, January/February 1990, doi:10.1109/40.46770
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