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Issue No. 05 - Sept.-Oct. (2013 vol. 28)
ISSN: 1541-1672
pp: 28-43
Zhaohui Wu , Zhejiang University
Raj Reddy , Carnegie Mellon University
Gang Pan , Zhejiang University
Nenggan Zheng , Zhejiang University
Paul F.M.J. Verschure , Catalan Institute of Advanced Studies (ICREA) and Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Qiaosheng Zhang , Zhejiang University
Xiaoxiang Zheng , Zhejiang University
Jose C. Principe , University of Florida
Alex Kreilinger , Graz University of Technology
Martin Rohm , Heidelberg University Hospital
Vera Kaiser , Graz University of Technology
Robert Leeb , École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Rudiger Rupp , Heidelberg University Hospital
Gernot R. Muller-Putz , Graz University of Technology
To explore the exciting new domain of brain informatics, we invited several well-known experts to discuss the state of the art, the challenges, the opportunities, and the trends. In "Creating Human-Level AI by Educating a Child Machine," Raj Reddy proposes an architecture for a "child machine" that can learn and is teachable. In "Cyborg Intelligence," Zhaohui Wu, Gang Pan, and Nenggan Zheng describe a biological-machine system consisting of both an organic and a computing part. In "Formal Minds and Biological Brains II: From the Mirage of Intelligence to a Science and Engineering of Consciousness," Paul F.M.J. Verschure discusses human-like cognitive architectures and describes the Distributed Adaptive Control (DAC) architecture for perception, cognition, and action. In "The Challenges of Closed-Loop Invasive Brain-Machine Interfaces," Qiaosheng Zhang and Xiaoxiang Zheng discuss the challenges and trends in closed-loop brain-machine interfaces. In "Neural Signal Processing in Brain-Machine Interfaces," Jose C. Principe takes a critical look at the challenges and opportunities of performing computation with pulses, as neurons do. In "Neuroprosthesis Control via a Noninvasive Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface," Alex Kreilinger, Martin Rohm, Vera Kaiser, Robert Leeb, Rüdiger Rupp, and Gernot R. Müller-Putz describe an example of the convergence of biological intelligence and machine intelligence in a hand-elbow neuroprosthesis control unit.
child machine, brain informatics, brain-computer interface, artificial intelligence, DAC, neuroprosthesis, closed loop, noninvasive, invasive, brain imaging, consciousness, intelligence

Z. Wu et al., "The Convergence of Machine and Biological Intelligence," in IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 28-43, 2013.
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