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Issue No. 06 - November/December (2011 vol. 26)
ISSN: 1541-1672
pp: 67-71
Robert R. Hoffman , Institute for Human and Machine Cognition
David D. Woods , Ohio State University
<p>Macrocognitive work systems are complex adaptive systems designed to support near-continuous interdependencies among humans and intelligent machines to carry out joint cognitive work that includes functions such as sensemaking, replanning, mental projection to the future, and coordination. The effort to identify empirical laws and use them to construct a formal theory led the authors to the identification of fundamental trade-offs that place performance limits on all macrocognitive work systems. This article presents five trade-offs that define these limits. It also illustrates how empirical regularities about the performance of human work systems emerge from the trade-offs.</p>
intelligent systems, macrocognitive work systems, cognitive work, cognitive science, adaptive systems, human-machine systems, systems development, systems engineering

R. R. Hoffman and D. D. Woods, "Beyond Simon's Slice: Five Fundamental Trade-Offs that Bound the Performance of Macrocognitive Work Systems," in IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 26, no. , pp. 67-71, 2011.
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