• lack of direct competition among organizational units;
• a rigidly defined corpus of rules (laws) that explicitly define the system behavior;
• hierarchical organizations with a clear line of command and a guaranteed minimum degree of central coordination;
• strict requirements to reach the same decisions in similar situations;
• a high demand for security, privacy, and trust;
• long-running process instances (for example, in urban and regional planning); and
• extreme information imbalances between stakeholders, as well as many different stakeholders in the same process (for example, citizen vs. city council, county council, or federal government).
• the society-to-political system interface, which includes interactions through processes of public policy analysis, formulation, and selection; and
• the society-to-administrative system interface, which includes interactions through the public-service provision process, covering both internal and external communications: government to government (G2G), government to citizens (G2C), and government to businesses (G2B).
• different execution environments in the participating agencies;
• different representations of information;
• complex, information- and knowledge-intensive processes with multiple decision points at runtime; and
• mixed manual and automated steps and possible long intervals of pause and waiting time.