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Issue No. 03 - May/June (2008 vol. 23)
ISSN: 1541-1672
pp: 72-79
Anton Nijholt , University of Twente
Desney Tan , Microsoft Research
Gert Pfurtscheller , Graz University of Technology
Clemens Brunner , Graz University of Technology
Jos? del R. Mill? , Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)
Brendan Allison , University of Bremen
Bernhard Graimann , University of Bremen
Florin Popescu , University of Bremen
Benjamin Blankertz , Fraunhofer First
Klaus-R. M? , Berlin Institute of Technology
Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain-imaging technologies give us the unprecedented ability to interface directly with brain activity. These technologies let us monitor physical processes in the brain that correspond with certain forms of thought. Researchers have begun using these technologies to build brain-computer interfaces (BCIs)—communication systems that don't depend on the brain's normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles. Four short articles provide a quick overview of the past, present, and future of BCIs.
brain-computer interface, BCI, electroencephalography, EEG, medical computing, neuroprosthetics, robot kinematics

A. Nijholt et al., "Brain-Computer Interfacing for Intelligent Systems," in IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 23, no. , pp. 72-79, 2008.
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