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Issue No. 02 - March/April (2005 vol. 20)
ISSN: 1541-1672
pp: 82-85
Ruqian Lu , Academy of Mathematics and Systems Sciences, Institute of Computing Technology, and Fudan University
Knowware seems a natural development in IT after hardware and software. Consider the fact that we once viewed the computer industry as part of the electronics industry. Then the formation of an independent computer hardware industry liberated IT from electronics. Similarly, before the 1980s, developers created software packages to support specific machines; thus, computer software development's independence from particular machines and hardware became IT's second liberation. Will we soon consider the emergence of knowware and its independence from software as IT's third liberation?

R. Lu, "From Hardware to Software to Knowware: IT's Third Liberation?," in IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 20, no. , pp. 82-85, 2005.
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