• Users want to solve problems at different abstraction levels and different degrees of automation for different circumstances.
• Tailored graphical interfaces are effective for supporting mixed-initiative dialogue.
• Executers can't easily tolerate huge plan changes, so localized plan changes, applied incrementally, are more appropriate than reoptimization.
Doug Dyer is a computer engineer and the president of Active Computing, a small company supporting the US Departments of Defense, State, and Homeland Security. His research interests include decision aids, automated planning and coordination technology, and intelligent simulation. He's a retired Air Force officer and former program manager for the DARPA Active Templates program. He received his PhD in computer engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology. Contact him at Active Computing Inc., 12712 Nathan Ln., Herndon VA 20170; email@example.com; www.activecomputing.org.
Steve Cross is a vice president of the Georgia Institute of Technology and the director of the Georgia Tech Research Institute, the nonprofit, applied- research arm of Georgia Tech. His research interests include industrial and systems engineering, knowledge-based planning and scheduling, and software engineering. He was previously the director and CEO of the Software Engineering Institute and a DARPA office deputy director. He received his PhD from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Contact him at the Georgia Tech Research Inst., Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.gtri.gatech.edu.
Craig A. Knoblock is a senior project leader at the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute and a research associate professor in computer science. He's also the chief scientist for Fetch Technologies, a company commercializing some work developed at USC. His research interests include information agents, information integration, automated planning, machine learning, and constraint reasoning. He received his PhD in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University. Contact him at the USC Information Sciences Inst., 4676 Admiralty Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90292; email@example.com; www.isi.edu/~knoblock.
Steven Minton is the chief technology officer of Fetch Technologies. His research interests include machine learning, planning, and constraint satisfaction. He received his PhD in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University. He founded the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research and served as its first executive editor. He has also served as an editor of Machine Learning. He's a fellow of the AAAI. Contact him at Fetch Technologies, 2041 Rosecrans Ave., Ste. 245, El Segundo, CA 90245; firstname.lastname@example.org; www.fetch.com.
Austin Tate is the technical director of the Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute and holds the Personal Chair of Knowledge-Based Systems at the University of Edinburgh. His research area includes knowledge systems and workflow process standards activities, and DARPA supports his O-Plan and I-X planning research. He's a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Contact him at the Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute, Univ. of Edinburgh, Appleton Tower, Crichton St., Edinburgh EH8 9LE, UK; email@example.com.