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<p>A machine can be made self-maintaining by taking advantage of functionally similar components when faults occur. The performance of the machine might degrade, but the required functions will continue. A self-maintenance machine should: constantly monitor its state; judge normal or faulty status using monitor data; diagnose even unknown faults by itself; generate a repair plan (based on the diagnostic results) that would enable the machine to perform at least some of the required functions; and execute the repair plan.</p>

H. Yoshikawa, Y. Umeda, T. Tomiyama and Y. Shimomura, "Using Functional Maintenance to Improve Fault Tolerance," in IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 9, no. , pp. 25-31, 1994.
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