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<p>It is proposed that knowledge specifications be used as bases for developing and maintaining expert systems. It is suggested that through knowledge acquisition, a knowledge specification representing the kinds of knowledge and reasoning processes used to perform a task can be produced. A prototype can then be built to test and improve the knowledge specification. When a stable and satisfactory specification is obtained, a production system for end users, based on the specification rather than on the prototype, can be implemented. The knowledge specification guides system changes during maintenance. An experimental study to assess and improve this methodology is reported. Prototyping is discussed, an expert system knowledge specification is presented, and a methodology for creating a knowledge specification using conceptual structures is described. The methodology is compared with a currently popular methodology for expert system development. The proposal is primarily intended for medium- to large-scale expert systems, which may have several developers and whose users will not be developing the systems.</p>

D. A. Gardiner, J. S. Slagle and K. Han, "Knowledge Specification of an Expert System," in IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 5, no. , pp. 29-38, 1990.
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