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<p>A crucial aspect of nondestructive-testing research is the inverse problem (or imaging), which involves the reconstruction of flaws in test specimen interiors, given a probe response signal. A novel approach that uses the finite-element model to solve the forward problem is presented. It is based on first formulating defect reconstruction as a parameter estimation problem. The test system functions as mathematical mapping from parameter space to signal space. The two major parts of the method are described: problem representation and the search procedure. Results obtained by applying the basic algorithm to defects simulated using the finite-element model are discussed.</p>

W. Lord and L. Udpa, "A Search-Based Imaging System for Electromagnetic Nondestructive Testing," in IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 4, no. , pp. 18-26, 1989.
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