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Issue No. 01 - January/February (2011 vol. 28)
ISSN: 0740-7475
pp: 52-63
Takayuki Kawahara , Hitachi Ltd., Kokubunji
<p>Editor's note:</p><p>Nonvolatile embedded memories may open the door to new computing paradigms based on "normally-off and instant-on" operation. This article covers recent trends of spin-transfer-torque RAM technology, an emerging class of nonvolatile memory, and discusses its impact on the different layers of computer system hierarchy.</p><p align="right">&#x2014;Chris H. Kim, University of Minnesota</p>
design and test, normally-off, instant-on, nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM), TMR device, spin-transfer torque, SPRAM, Gbit-scale memory, multibit operation, 4F2 memory cell

T. Kawahara, "Scalable Spin-Transfer Torque RAM Technology for Normally-Off Computing," in IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol. 28, no. , pp. 52-63, 2010.
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