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Issue No.06 - November-December (2007 vol.24)
pp: 522-533
Thomas Eisenbarth , Ruhr University Bochum
Sandeep Kumar , Philips Research Europe
Christof Paar , Ruhr University Bochum
Axel Poschmann , Ruhr University Bochum
Leif Uhsadel , Catholic University of Leuven
The upcoming pervasive computing age will lead to an increased demand for security for applications ranging from RFIDs and smart cards to mobile devices. Lightweight cryptography is a key tool for building strong security solutions for pervasive devices. Due to the tight cost constraints of such extremely high-volume applications, efficient hardware and software implementations of cryptographic algorithms are of the utmost importance to realize the vision of pervasive computing. However, the computational complexity inherent in ciphers poses a major challenge. This article presents a selection of recently published lightweight cryptographic implementations and compares them to state-of-the-art results in the field. This survey covers recent hardware and software implementations of both symmetric and asymmetric ciphers.
RFID, DESL, Present, lightweight cryptography, embedded security, pervasive computing
Thomas Eisenbarth, Sandeep Kumar, Christof Paar, Axel Poschmann, Leif Uhsadel, "A Survey of Lightweight-Cryptography Implementations", IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol.24, no. 6, pp. 522-533, November-December 2007, doi:10.1109/MDT.2007.178
1. G. Leander et al., "New Lightweight DES Variants," Proc. Fast Software Encryption (FSE 07), LNCS 4593, Springer-Verlag, 2007, pp. 196-210.
2. A. Bogdanov et al., "PRESENT: An Ultra-Lightweight Block Cipher," Proc. Workshop Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES 07), LNCS 4727, Springer, 2007, pp. 450-466.
3. M. Feldhofer, J. Wolkerstorfer, and V. Rijmen, "AES Implementation on a Grain of Sand," IEE Proc, vol. 152, no. 1, Oct. 2005, pp. 13-20.
4. S. Kumar et al., "Breaking Ciphers with COPACOBANA-A Cost—Optimized Parallel Code Breaker," Proc. Workshop Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES 06), LNCS 4249, Springer, 2006, pp. 101-118.
5. T. Good and M. Benaissa, "Hardware Results for Selected Stream Cipher Candidates," Workshop Record State of the Art of Stream Ciphers (SASC 07), 2007, 2007023.pdf.
6. G. Meiser et al., "Software Implementation of eSTREAM Profile I Ciphers on Embedded 8-bit AVR Microcontrollers," Workshop Record State of the Art of Stream Ciphers (SASC 07), 2007, md/content/texte/publications/conferences sasc2007_117.pdf.
7. S. Kumar, "Elliptic Curve Cryptography for Constrained Devices," doctoral dissertation, Electrical Engineering and Information Sciences, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, 2006.
8. T. Itoh and S. Tsujii, "A Fast Algorithm for Computing Multiplicative Inverses in GF(2m) Using Normal Bases," Information and Computation, vol. 78, no. 3, Sept. 1988, pp. 171-177.
9. L. Batina et al., "An Elliptic Curve Processor Suitable for RFID-Tags," Benelux Workshop Information and System Security (WISSec 06), 2006,
10. G. Gaubatz et al., "State of the Art in Ultra-Low Power Public Key Cryptography for Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. 3rd IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Communications (PERCOMW 05), IEEE CS Press, 2005, pp. 146-150.
11. J. Wolkerstorfer, "Scaling ECC Hardware to a Minimum," Cryptographic Advances in Secure Hardware (CRASH 2005), 2005, invited talk.
12. E. Öztürk, B. Sunar, and E. Savas, "Low-Power Elliptic Curve Cryptography Using Scaled Modular Arithmetic," Proc. 6th Int'l Workshop Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES 04), LNCS 3156, Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp. 92-106.
13. L. Uhsadel, A. Poschmann, and C. Paar, "Enabling Full-Size Public-Key Algorithms on 8-bit Sensor Nodes," Proc. 4th European Workshop Security and Privacy in Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (ESAS 07), LNCS 4572, Springer-Verlag, 2007, pp. 73-86.
14. N. Gura et al., "Comparing Elliptic Curve Cryptography and RSA on 8-bit CPUs," Proc. 6th Int'l Workshop Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES 04), LNCS 3156, Springer, 2004, pp. 119-132.
15. A. Woodbury, D.V. Bailey, and C. Paar, "Elliptic Curve Cryptography on Smart Cards without Coprocessors," Proc. 4th Working IFIP Conf. Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications (CARDIS 00), Kluwer Academic, 2000, pp. 71-92.
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