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As the complexity of electronic circuits and systems increases, so does the complexity of testing them. The level-sensitive scan-design (LSSD) structure used in a digital circuit enhances the controllability and observability of the circuit under test. For analog circuits, there also have been several approaches proposed to improve their observability based on the LSSD concept. However, none of these approaches provide control and observation capability for all test points simultaneously. In this article, we propose two control and observation structures for analog circuits. Using our approach, one is able to observe and control the DC voltage levels of all test points simultaneously, which is the basic diagnosis capability required for analog circuits. A calibration process is presented to ensure the accuracy of the excitation and read-out voltage levels. A second-order bandpass filter is used as an example showing the feasibility of our approach.
Controllability, observability, LSSD, analog design-for-testability, analog circuit testing

Y. Shieh and C. Wu, "Control and Observation Structures for Analog Circuits," in IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol. 15, no. , pp. 56-64, 1998.
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