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The new logic families had lead to a spectacular increase of speed operations of digital equipments. At high-frequency, interconnections act as transmission lines, their modeling with lumped circuits being incorrect. In the case of digital signals, the frequency spectrum associated with a tr rise time can be estimated to [eqn], and if the propagation time on the interconnection is comparable to the signal's rise time [eqn], the interconnection must be modeled with distributed parameters, as a transmission line (for example, if [eqn]. Therefore, in modern high-speed computers the interconnection problems become an important factor, limiting the operation speed. Knowing and taking into account these problems from the design stage are essential for a competitive project. This article is an overview of the interconnection problems, focusing on isolated lines' problems and on crosstalk analysis as well, based on the literature and also on the personal researches and experience of the authors.
Physical design, high-speed interconnections, transmission lines, crosstalk, electromagnetic compatibility

V. Onofrei, M. ALBULEc T and S. Radu, "Interconnection Problems in Modern Computers," in IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol. 13, no. , pp. 36-46, 1996.
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